Friday, July 7, 2017

Viscum album, Амяла белая, Mistelten, Weißbeerige Mistel, Имела, Jemioła pospolita, ヤドリギ, 겨우살이, Ghi trắng, داروش اروپایی

Viscum album L.
Family: Santalaceae
  • English: Druid's Herb, mistletoe
  • Arabic: دبق أبيض
  • Armenian: Ճագում սպիտակ
  • Azerbaijani: Ağ öksəotu
  • Basque: Mihura
  • Belarusian: Амяла белая
  • Bulgarian: Бял имел
  • Catalan: Vesc
  • Chinese: 槲寄生
  • Corsican: Vischju
  • Czech: Jmelí bílé
  • Danish: Mistelten
  • Esperanto: Blanka visko
  • Estonian: Harilik puuvõõrik
  • Finnish: Misteli
  • French: Gui
  • German: Weißbeerige Mistel
  • Greek: Ιξός
  • Hungarian: Fehér fagyöngy
  • Japanese: ヤドリギ
  • Korean: 겨우살이
  • Limburgish: Haamsjeut
  • Lithuanian: Paprastasis amalas
  • Macedonian: Имела
  • Norwegian: Misteltein
  • Persian: داروش اروپایی
  • Polish: Jemioła pospolita
  • Romanian: Vâsc european
  • Russian: Омела белая
  • Serbian: Имела
  • Slovac: Imelo biele
  • Slovenian: Bela omela
  • Swedish: Mistel
  • Turkish: Ökse otu
  • Ukrenian: Омела біла
  • Vietnamese: Ghi trắng
Description: Plant shrubby, yellowish-green; stem jointed, dichotomously branched, swollen at the nodes. Leaves sessile, elliptic to oblanceolate or obovate, 2.5-7 cm long, 0.5-3.5 cm broad, entire, obtuse, 3-5-nerved. Flowers sessile, in 3-5 flowered fascicles; bracts 2, concave, 2 mm long, obtuse, ciliate. Perianth lobes 3-4, free, 1 mm long, triangular, thick, deciduous. Anthers 4, dehiscing by numerous pores. Ovary. 2 mm long, obovoid; stigma 1 mm long, conical. Berry c. 1 cm broad, globose; seed 5-6 mm long, embedded in a white viscid pulp.

This parasite grows primarily on the trunks of deciduous trees, particularly the apple. Stems are much branched, and the leaves are 2 to 3 inches long, thick, leathery, and usually a pale yellowish-green. The fruit is a sticky white berry. [Handbook of Poisonous and Injurious Plants, 2nd Ed]

An antispasmodic nervine. The infusion is given with benefit in epilepsy, fits, paralysis, and other diseases of the nervous system; it has been employed in tooth and face aches, neuralgia, and similar complaints of the bead and face, but does not appear to have found such successful employment in the latter complaints as in the more serious and distressing ones already enumerated. It is popularly supposed that the mistletoe growing upon the oak is of greater efficacy as a medicine than that growing elsewhere; but in actual practice it is found that no difference exists whatever between that growing upon this particular tree and that derived from any other source of growth. As the properties of mistletoe by exposure to the air become considerably impaired, it should always, after drying, be preserved in as air tight a condition as possible. [Botanic Pharmacopoeia]

Anticancer, cardiac tonic and tonic, : Immunomodulator, cytotoxic and hypogiycemic. [Compendia of World’s Medicinal Flora]

Used in Ayurveda and Unani. Whole plant as a poultice for the treatment of muscular pain; plant decoction given in body ache and joint pain; whole plant paste applied on fractured bone as a plaster. Leaves contraceptive, for infertility and sterility; leaves paste applied on abdomen for abortion. Extract of the leaves and berries in the treatment of hypertension, hysteria and epilepsy. [CRC World Dictionary of Medicinal and Poisonous Plants]

The leaves of the plant have special value in cases of epilepsy (convulsions during unconsciousness), hysteria (nervous condition marked by alternate crying and laughing, usually during emotional stress), and other nervous conditions. This herb acts as a tonic and is also a narcotic, tending to induce a stupor, sleep or unconsciousness. It has also been recommended for female ailments, including hemorrhages of the uterus, amenorrhea (cessation of menstruation) and dysmenorrhea (painful or difficult menstruation). It has also been recommended as a heart tonic in cases of typhoid fever and has also been suggested for excessive or high blood pressure. [Encyclopedia of medicinal herbs, with the herb-o-matic locator index]

Highly valued as a nervine and antispasmodic. Mistletoe leaves are given in hysteria, epilepsy, chorea and other diseases of the nervous system. As an anti-spasmodic and tonic it is used in cardiac dropsy. [Herbal Manual]

Mistletoe is stated to possess hypotensive, cardiac-depressant and sedative properties. Traditionally, it has been used for high blood pressure, arteriosclerosis, nervous tachycardia, hypertensive head- ache, chorea and hysteria. Modern use of mistletoe preparations is focused on use as a treatment and as an adjuvant treatment in cancer. Clinical studies of mistletoe preparations have assessed mistletoe preparations as a treatment, or as an adjunctive treatment, in patients with different types of cancers. A small number of other clinical trials have been conducted involving patients with chronic hepatitis C infection, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and respiratory infections. [Herbal Medicines 3rd Ed]

The main therapeutic value of mistletoe lies in treating high blood pressure, although it has traditionally been used to treat epilepsy, insomnia, and tinnitus. [Herbal Remedies]

Vasodilator, cardiac depressant, tranquiliser, stimulates the vagus nerve which slows the pulse, anti-inflammatory, diuretic, immune enhancer, antineoplastic. Used for hypertension and tachycardia, as a nervine tonic. The extract of leafy twigs is antiinflammatory exerting an action upon capillary permeability and oedema. It stimulates granulation and the neoformation of connective tissue. [Indian Medicinal Plants An Illustrated Dictionary]

It is given by the Hakims in enlargement of the spleen, in cases of wound, tumour, diseases of the ear, etc. [Indian medicinal plants]

Parts used. Leaf, stem. Traditional uses.   Antihypertension, stomach cancer. [Medicinal Plants in the Republic of Korea]

The leaves are a stimulating and relaxing antispasmodic nervine. It seems to give its especial influence where it is most needed by the vital force. During parturition when the pains are light, it produces prompt uterine contractions and well anticipates hemorrhage. It is also valuable in all uterine hemorrhages, and assists much in the expulsion of the placenta when retained. As an antispasmodic it will be found useful in the relief of the extra, effort put forth in asthma, epilepsy and other spasmodic conditions. Nervine, tonic and narcotic properties make it of great value in hysteria, St. Vitus Dance and other nervous diseases. [Physio-Medical Therapeutics, Materia Medica and Pharmacy]

1259 Published articles of Viscum album

Wednesday, July 5, 2017

Artemisia japonica, Japanese mugwort, otoko-yomogi, garkrek


Artemisia japonica Thunb.
Family: Asteraceae

Synonyms: Artemisia  cuneifolia  DC.; Artemisia  glabrata  Wallich  ex  Besser;  Artemisia  glabrata, Wight;  Artemisia  japonica  Kitam.;  Artemisia  japonica Lauener;  Artemisia  japonica  Schmidt;  Artemisia  japonica  f.  manshurica  Komarov;  Artemisia  japonica  var. lanata  Pampanini;  Artemisia  japonica  var.  macrocephala Pampanini; Artemisia japonica var. manshurica (Komarov), M.  Kitagawa;  Artemisia  japonica  var.  manshurica  Kom.; Artemisia japonica var. microcephala Pampanini; Artemisia morrisonensis  Hayata  var.  minima  Pampanini;  Artemisia parviflora   Aitchison;  Artemisia  parviflora   Buch.-Ham.  ex Roxb.;  Artemisia  subintegra  Kitamura;  Chrysanthemum japonicum  Thunberg;  Dendranthema  japonense  (Nakai) Kitam.; Oligosporus japonicus (Thunberg) Poljakov)
  • English: Japanese mugwort
  • Azərbaycanca: Yapon yovşanı
  • China: chi tou hao, mou hao, mu hao, wei
  • India: niapfu, pamasi, patee
  • Japan: otoko-yomogi
  • Tibet: garkrek, kirmani, nireha, pamasi
  • Vietnamese: Ngải Nhật
Upper parts of plants used to cure convulsions among children. Leaves cooling, bitter, antiviral, used for making antitoxifying and antifebrile drugs; young leaves wound-healing, to  cure  skin  diseases;  ash  of  leaves  applied  on  wounds  to hasten healing; leaves decoction carminative and vermifuge. Roots for throat-related problems. Leaves and flower heads used as incense and insecticide.[CRC World Dictionary of Medicinal and Poisonous Plants]

89 Published articles of Artemisia japonica

Hippophae rhamnoides, Sea buckthorn, Dhurchuk, Sanddorn, Argousier, Tyrni, Չիչխան սովորական, Almindelig Havtorn

Hippophae rhamnoides L.
Family: Elaeagnaceae
Synonyms: Argussiera rhamnoides Bubani; Argussiera rhamnoides (L.) Bubani; Elaeagnus rhamnoides Royle;  Elaeagnus  rhamnoides  (L.)  A.  Nelson;  Hippophae rhamnoidea  St.-Lag.;  Hippophaes rhamnoideum  (L.)  St.Lag.; Hippophaes rhamnoideum St.-Lag.; Rhamnoides hippophae Moench
  • English: Sea buckthorn, seaberry
  • Arabic: أبو فايس
  • Armenian: Չիչխան սովորական
  • Azerbaijani: Murdarçayabənzər çaytikanı
  • Bashkir: Һырғанаҡ
  • Belarusian: Абляпіха крушынападобная
  • Bulgarian: Облепиха
  • Catalan: Arç groc
  • Croatian: Pasji trn
  • Czech: Rakytník řešetlákový
  • Danish: Almindelig Havtorn
  • Dutch: Duindoorn
  • Estonian: Harilik astelpaju
  • Finnish: Tyrni
  • French: Argousier
  • Galaician: Espiñeiro marítimo
  • German: Sanddorn
  • Hindi: Dhurchuk, Chumaa, Tarwaa
  • Hungarian: Európai homoktövis
  • Italian:olivella spinosa
  • Kabardian: Къазмакъей
  • Kashubian: Sëdwina
  • Kazakh: Шырғанақ (өсімдік)
  • Kyrgyz:  Кaдимки чычыpкaнaк (Kadimki chychyrkanak)
  • Latvian: Pabērzu smiltsērkšķis
  • Lithuanian: Dygliuotasis šaltalankis
  • Manx: Bugogue varrey
  • Nepali: मलो malo
  • Norwagian: Tindved
  • Pashto: اکبار
  • Persian: سنجد تلخ
  • Polish: Rokitnik zwyczajny
  • Punjabi: Sirmaa
  • Romanian: cătină
  • Russian:oblepicha
  • Serbian: Пасји трн
  • Slovanian: Navadni rakitovec
  • Spanish: Espino Amarillo
  • Swedish: Havtorn
  • Udmurt: Вӧёпу
  • Uzbek:  Chakanda
  • Voro: Nõglapai

Description: Thorny deciduous  shrub or  small tree. Leaves oblong-lanceolate, white-downy beneath. Male flowers yellowish-brown in small catkins that appear before leaves; female in small racemes appearing with the leaves. Fruits globular, orange or red berry.

Shrub, deep penetrating strong root system, thorny branches, juicy ripe fruits edible, fodder for goats, camel and sheep. [CRC World Dictionary of Medicinal and Poisonous Plants]

The fruit of H. rhamnoides L. is a traditional herbal medicine mainly used in Tibet and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Regions to regulate the function of stomach and intestines, and treat syndromes such as indigestion, abdominal pains, etc.  It has been well documented to have antioxidant, immunostimulative, regenerative, and antiulcerogenic properties, a protective effect against injuries in mice and effects on hyperlipidemic serum cultured smooth-muscle cells in vitro.  The alcoholic extracts of leaves and fruits of the plant at a concentration of 0.5 mg/mL were found to inhibit chromium-induced free radical production, apoptosis, and DNA fragmentation. In addition, these extracts were able to arrest the chromium-induced inhibition of lymphocyte proliferation. [Herbal and Traditional Medicine]

The fruits are used as an analgesic, as a remedy for stomach pain, to improve digestion, and to treat scurvy.  A decoction of the fruits is drunk to treat ulcers and is added to baths to prevent skin diseases. Fresh fruits are used to  moisturize the skin, to help heal small wounds and burns, and to treat skin diseases associated with poor metabolism. An  infusion of the leaves is drunk or the leaves are directly applied to the body to treat rheumatism. A decoction of the seeds  is used as a laxative. [Medicinal Plants of Central Asia Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan]

Fruit—astringent, antidiarrhoeal, stomachic, antitussive, antihaemorrhagic. SeaBuckthorn preparationsareused internally for stomach ulcer, duodenal ulcer and other illnesses of the alimentary organs; externally in cases of burns, bedsores and other skin complications induced by the treatment with X-rays and other radiations. [Indian Medicinal Plants An Illustrated Dictionary]

Topical  application  of  1.0%  seabuckthorn leaf  extract  statistically  significantly  augmented the healing process, as evidenced by increases in the content of hydroxyproline  and protein as well as the reduction in wound area when compared with similar effects  in response to  treabnent using povidone-iodine ointment (standard care).  The  reduced  glutathione, vitamin C, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase activities  showed significant increases in seabuckthorn leaf extract-treated wounds as compared to  controls.  The  lipid  peroxide  levels  were significantly  decreased  in  leaf  extract-treated  wounds. The results suggest that aqueous leaf extract of sea buckthorn promotes wound  healing,  which  may  be  due  to  increased  antioxidant  levels in  the  granulation  tissue. [Herbal Cures: Traditional Approach]

With high levels of minerals and vitamins A and  C, sea buckthorn’s tart-tasting berries make an  ideal supplement to prevent colds and sore throats. As a natural supplement, the  juice or syrup of  sea buckthorn will  improve resistance to colds, sore throat,  and sinus problems. Rich in antioxidant  bioflavonoids, sea buckthorn supports  capillary and arterial health when taken  long-term. [Herbal Remedies]

Used in Toothache, joint pain,liver, lung and phlegm diseases, menstrual disorders,dysentery, gum infection, blood disorders, diabetes and intestinal parasites. Fruits are edible raw, also used extensively for the preparation of concentrate. [Medicinal Plants of Dolpo]

650 Published articles of  Hippophae rhamnoides

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Clerodendrum philippinum Clerodendrum phlomidis Clerodendrum serratum Clerodendrum splendens Clerodendrum wallichii Coccinia grandis Cocculus hirsutus Cocculus laurifolius Cochlospermum religiosum Coix lacryma-jobi Colebrookea oppositifolia Coleus aromaticus Colocasia esculenta Combretum indicum Commelina benghalensis Commelina maculata Commelina paludosa Commiphora mukul Commiphora wightii Conocarpus lancifolius Consolida ajacis Convolvulus pluricaulis Cordyline fruticosa Corydalis cornuta Cosmos sulphureus Costus speciosus Cotinus coggygria Couroupita guianensis Crinum asiaticum Crocus sativus Crossandra infundibuliformis Crotalaria alata Crotalaria pallida Crotalaria prostrata Croton klotzschianus Croton scabiosus Croton tiglium Cryptolepis buchananii Cryptolepis dubia Cryptostegia grandiflora Cucumis sativus Cupressus torulosa Curcuma amada Curcuma longa Cuscuta reflexa Cyananthus lobatus Cyanthillium cinereum Cycas revoluta Cyclanthera pedata Cymbopogon nardus Cynodon dactylon Cyperus laevigatus Cyperus malaccensis Cyperus rotundus Dactyloctenium aegyptium Dactylorhiza hatagirea Dalbergia latifolia Datisca cannabina Datura metel Datura stramonium Daucus carota Delphinium ajacis Delphinium denudatum Delphinium elatum Dendrobium densiflorum Dendrobium ovatum Derris scandens Desmodium concinnum Desmodium gangeticum Desmodium heterocarpon Desmodium multiflorum Desmodium triflorum Dicliptera paniculata Didymocarpus pedicellatus Dillenia indica Dimorphocalyx glabellus Dimorphoteca ecklonis Dioscorea alata Dioscorea polygonoides Diospyros malabarica Dipteracanthus patulus Dipteracanthus prostratus Dolichos biflorus Dregea volubilis Drimia indica Drosera peltata Duranta erecta Dysoxylum binectariferum Dysoxylum gotadhora Dysphania ambrosioides Echinocereus pentalophus Echinops niveus Echium plantagineum Edgeworthia gardneri Eichhornia crassipes Elaeagnus umbellata Elaeocarpus ganitrus Elephantopus scaber Eleutheranthera ruderalis Elsholtzia fruticosa Emblica officinalis Enterolobium cyclocarpum Ephedra foliata Ephedra gerardiana Epipactis helleborine Eranthemum pulchellum Eryngium foetidum Erysimum hieraciifolium Erythrina suberosa Erythrina variegata Euonymus echinatus Euonymus japonicus Eupatorium capillifolium Eupatorium perfoliatum Euphorbia antiquorum Euphorbia cornigera Euphorbia cotinifolia Euphorbia granulata Euphorbia heterophylla Euphorbia hirta Euphorbia hypericifolia Euphorbia milii Euphorbia nivulia Euphorbia peplus Euphorbia tirucalli Fagonia cretica Fagopyrum acutatum Ferula foetida Ficus elastica Ficus religiosa Filicium decipiens Filipendula vestita Flacourtia indica Flemingia procumbens Flemingia semialata Foeniculum vulgare Free Access Journal Fumaria indica Fumaria parviflora Furcraea foetida Galega officinalis General Gentiana kurroo Geranium lucidum Geranium nepalense Geranium pratense Geranium wallichianum Ghee Globba schomburgkii Glochidion hohenackeri Gloriosa superba Glycyrrhiza glabra Gmelina arborea Gomphrena globosa Gomphrena serrata Goodyera repens Grewia asiatica Grewia optiva Grewia serrulata Grewia tenax Gymnema sylvestre Habenaria edgeworthii Handroanthus impetiginosus Hedychium spicatum Helianthus annuus Helicteres isora Helinus lanceolatus Heliotropium indicum Hemidesmus indicus Hemigraphis alternata Hemigraphis colorata Hemigraphis hirta Heracleum sphondylium Herpetospermum pedunculosum Hibiscus cannabinus Hibiscus esculentus Hibiscus hirtus Hibiscus lobatus Hibiscus radiatus Hibiscus vitifolius Hippophae rhamnoides Holarrhena antidysenterica Holarrhena pubescens Holoptelea integrifolia Hosta plantaginea Hoya carnosa Hydrocotyle sibthorpioides Hydrolea zeylanica Hygrophila auriculata Hygrophila polysperma Hygrophila schulli Hylocereus undatus Hymenocallis speciosa Hyoscyamus niger Hypericum dyeri Hypericum elodeoides Hypericum oblongifolium Hyptis suaveolens Ilex dipyrena Impatiens balsamina Impatiens racemosa Indigofera aspalathoides Indigofera astragalina Indigofera glabra Ipomoea alba Ipomoea aquatica Ipomoea marginata Isodon rugosus Ixeris polycephala Jacaranda mimosifolia Jacquemontia pentantha Jasminum auriculatum Jasminum multiflorum Jatropha curcas Jatropha gossypifolia Juncus thomsonii Justicia adhatoda Justicia brandegeeana Justicia carnea Justicia gendarussa Justicia pubigera Kalanchoe blossfeldiana Kallstroemia pubescens Koelreuteria elegans Koenigia delicatula Kopsia fruticosa Kydia calycina Kyllinga brevifolia Lablab purpureus Lactuca dissecta Lantana camara Lathyrus sativus Leea aequata Lens culinaris Leonotis nepetifolia Leonurus cardiaca Lepidium sativum Lepisanthes rubiginosa Leucas aspera Leucas nutans Leucostemma latifolium Leycesteria formosa Ligularia amplexicaulis Ligularia fischeri Lilium polyphyllum Linum usitatissimum Liparis nervosa Liquidambar formosana Litsea monopetala Lupinus angustifolius Macaranga peltata Maesa argentea Magnolia champaca Mahonia napaulensis Malachra Capitata Mallotus nudiflorus Mallotus philippinensis Malva sylvestris Malvastrum coromandelianum Martynia annua Medicago lupulina Medicinal Plants of India Melilotus indicus Melochia corchorifolia Memecylon edule Memecylon umbellatum Mercurialis annua Meriandra strobilifera Merremia cissoides Mesua ferrea Micrococca mercuriali Micromeria biflora Mikania micrantha Millettia pinnata Mimosa polyancistra Mimosa pudica Mitragyna parvifolia Modiola caroliniana Momordica charantia Momordica cochinchinensis Morinda citrifolia Morinda pubescens Moringa oleifera Mucuna pruriens Muehlenbeckia platyclada Muehlenbeckia platyclados Muntingia calabura Murdannia nudiflora Murraya koenigii Muscari neglectum Myriactis nepalensis Myristica fragrans Myrtus communis Naravelia zeylanica Nardostachys grandiflora Nardostachys jatamansi Naringi crenulata Nasturtium officinale Nelumbo nucifera Neolamarckia cadamba Nepeta laevigata Nerium indicum Nerium oleander Nicotiana plumbaginifolia Nicotiana rustica Nicotiana tabacum Nigella sativa Nyctanthes arbor-tristis Nymphaea nouchali Nymphaea pubescens Nymphoides indica Ocimum basilicum Ocimum gratissimum Ocimum kilimandscharicum Ocimum sanctum Oldenlandia umbellata Ononis natrix Ononis repens Ononis spinosa Operculina turpethum Origanum majorana Oroxylum indicum Osteospermum ecklonis Others Oxyria digyna Pachygone ovata Pachyrhizus erosus Paederia foetida Pandanus tectorius Passiflora caerulea Passiflora vitifolia Pavetta indica Pentapetes phoenicea Pentas lanceolata Peperomia argyreia Peperomia heyneana Peperomia pellucida Peperomia sandersii Peperomia tetraphylla Perilla frutescens Persicaria amplexicaulis Persicaria barbata Persicaria capitata Persicaria glabra Persicaria nepalensis Phalaenopsis taenialis Phaulopsis dorsiflora Philodendron bipinnatifidum Phlomis bracteosa Phlomoides bracteosa Phyllanthus acidus Phyllanthus amarus Phyllanthus fraternus Phyllanthus lawii Phyllanthus rotundifolius Physalis grisea Physalis peruviana Picrorhiza kurroa Pilea microphylla Piper betle Piper longum Piper nigrum Pisonia aculeata Pistia stratiotes Pisum sativum Plantago orbignyana Plantago ovata Platanthera edgeworthii Platostoma elongatum Plectranthus barbatus Plectranthus scutellarioides Plumbago auriculata Plumbago capensis Plumbago zeylanica Plumeria rubra Podranea ricasoliana Polemonium caeruleum Polygala crotalarioides Polygala persicariifolia Polygonatum verticillatum Polygonum amplexicaule Polygonum barbatum Polygonum recumbens Pongamia pinnata Portulaca oleracea Portulaca umbraticola Portulacaria afra Potentilla fruticosa Potentilla supina Premna corymbosa Premna tomentosa Primula denticulata Primula floribunda Primula vulgaris Prunus Amygdalus Prunus dulcis Pseuderanthemum carruthersii Pseudobombax ellipticum Pseudocaryopteris foetida Psidium guajava Psidium guineense Pterocarpus santalinus Pterospermum acerifolium Pterospermum lanceifolium Pterygota alata Pulicaria dysenterica Punica granatum Putranjiva roxburghii Pyrostegia venusta Quisqualis indica Ranunculus arvensis Ranunculus laetus Ranunculus sceleratus Raphanus sativus Rauvolfia serpentina Rauvolfia tetraphylla Reinwardtia indica Rhamphicarpa fistulosa Rhodiola trifida Rhodiola wallichiana Rhododendron arboreum Rhynchosia himalensis Rhynchosia viscosa Ricinus communis Rorippa indica Roscoea purpurea Rosmarinus officinalis Ruellia patula Ruellia prostrata Ruellia tuberosa Rumex dentatus Rumex hastatus Rungia pectinata Saccharum officinarum Saccharum spontaneum Salix denticulata Salix tetrasperma Salvadora persica Salvia involucrata Salvia nubicola Salvia splendens Sambucus canadensis Sambucus mexicana Sambucus nigra Santalum album Sapindus saponaria Saussurea auriculata Saussurea candicans Saussurea obvallata Scadoxus multiflorus Scutellaria grossa Scutellaria repens Sedum oreades Semecarpus anacardium Senna auriculata Senna occidentalis Senna siamea Senna sophera Sesbania bispinosa Sesbania grandiflora Seseli diffusum Sesuvium portulacastrum Setaria verticillata Shorea robusta Sida cordata Sida cordifolia Sida retusa Sida spinosa Sideritis hirsuta Smithia ciliata Solanum chrysotrichum Solanum erianthum Solanum jasminoides Solanum melongena Solanum nigrum Solanum sisymbriifolium Solanum surattense Solanum torvum Solanum tuberosum Solanum villosum Soymida febrifuga Sphaeranthus amaranthoides Sphenoclea zeylanica Spiranthes australis Spiranthes sinensis Spondias pinnata Stellaria media Stephania japonica Sterculia alata Sterculia foetida Sterculia villosa Stereospermum tetragonum Stevia rebaudiana Striga asiatica Strophanthus boivinii Strychnos minor Strychnos potatorum Suaeda maritima Suregada multiflora Swertia angustifolia Swertia bimaculata Swertia cordata Swertia paniculata Swietenia macrophylla Swietenia mahagoni Syzygium alternifolium Syzygium aromaticum Syzygium cumini Syzygium jambos Syzygium samarangense Tabebuia aurea Tabebuia avellanedae Talinum portulacifolium Tamarindus indica Taxus baccata Tecoma castanifolia Tephrosia purpurea Teramnus labialis Terminalia alata Terminalia catappa Terminalia chebula Terminalia elliptica Terminalia pallida Teucrium botrys Teucrium royleanum Thalictrum foliolosum Thespesia populnea Thunbergia erecta Thunbergia fragrans Thunbergia grandiflora Thymus linearis Tiliacora acuminata Tiliacora racemosa Tinospora cordifolia Tinospora crispa Tinospora sinensis Toona ciliata Trewia nudiflora Tribulus terrestris Trichodesma indicum Trichosanthes cucumerina Trichosanthes palmata Trichosanthes tricuspidata Trifolium repens Trigonella foenum-graecum Triumfetta rhomboidea Tylophora indica Uraria picta Urena lobata Urena sinuata Urginea coromandeliana Vachellia horrida Valeriana jatamansi Vanda tessellata Veronica serpyllifolia Viburnum coriaceum Vicia bakeri Vicia faba Vicia sativa Vigna radiata Vigna unguiculata Vinca rosea Viola rupestris Viscum album Vitex negundo Vitis vinifera Withania somnifera Wrightia tinctoria Wulfeniosis amherstiana Zamia furfuracea Ziziphus jujuba Ziziphus mauritiana