Showing posts with label Terminalia chebula. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Terminalia chebula. Show all posts

Thursday, June 25, 2015

Terminalia chebula, Harithaki, Kadukkai, สมอไทย, Chiêu lieu, Hardi,


Terminalia chebula Retz.
Family: Combretaceae

Synonyms: Buceras chebula (Retz.) Lyons, Myrobalanus chebula (Retz.) Gaertn., Myrobalanus gangetica (Roxb.) Kostel., Terminalia acuta Walp., Terminalia chebula var. chebula, Terminalia gangetica Roxb., Terminalia parviflora Thwaites, Terminalia reticulata Roth, Terminalia zeylanica Van Heurck & Müll. Arg.

  • Common name: Black Myrobalan, Myrobalan
  • Assamese: শিলিখা Shilikha
  • Bengali: হরীতকী Haritaki
  • Chinese: 诃子
  • Gujaratai: હરડી Hardi, હરડે Harde
  • Hindi: हरीतकी Harithaki
  • Kannada: ಅಳಲೆ ಕಾಯಿ Alale kayi
  • Konkani: Ordo
  • Malayalam: കടുക്ക Katukka
  • Manipuri: মনাহী Manahi
  • Marathi: हिरडा Hirada
  • Nepali: हर्रा Harra,
  • Oriya: Karedha
  • Pashto: هريړه
  • Sanskrit: हरीतकी Harithaki
  • Tamil: கடுக்காய் kadukkaay
  • Telugu: కరక్కాయ karakkaya
  • Thai: สมอไทย
  • Vietnamese: Chiêu lieu
Description: Deciduous trees, to 25 m high, bark 5-6 mm thick, surface dark brown to black, fissures shallow, vertical, exfoliating in thick scales; blaze yellowish-brown; young shoots densely pubescent; branchlets brownish or greyish, glabrous. Leaves simple, opposite to alternate, exstipulate; petiole 12-25 mm long, stout, grooved above, pubescent, 2 sessile glands at the top; lamina 9.5-28 x 4-13 cm, ovate, elliptic, obovate or elliptic-obovate, base round, obtuse, oblique or subtruncate, apex acute, acuminate, obtuse or apiculate, margin entire, glabrous above tawny villous beneath, coriaceous; lateral nerves 6-12 pairs, pinnate, ascending, prominent, arched towards the margin, intercostae reticulate, prominent. Flowers bisexual, greenish-white, 5-6 mm across, in terminal and axillary spikes with offensive smell; bracts 2-3 mm long; calyx tube 1.5-2.5 × 0.8-1 mm, villous, constricted above the ovary, lobes 5, creamy, triangular, 1.5 mm; petals 0; stamens 10 in 2 rows; filaments 4-6 mm; disc 5-lobed, villous; ovary 2 mm long, inferior, densely villous, 1-celled; style 5 mm, subulate; stigma terminal. Fruit a drupe 3-4 x 2-2.5 cm, obovoid, woody, obscurely 5 angled, glabrous, greenish-yellow; seed one.

Ayurvedic uses: Sotha, Arsha, Aruchi, Hrudroga, Kasa, Pandu, Prameha, Udavarta, Vibandha, Jirna jvara, Siroroga, Tamakasvasa, Gulma, Udararoga. [API, Vol 1]

 The  chebulic  myrobalan  fruit  is  a  very  important  herb  in  the Ayurvedic tradition, and consequently, in the Royal Thai tradition as well. The unripe fruit is a common detoxifying remedy for fever, parasitic infections, spleen disorders, jaundice, skin disease, and allergic reactions of the skin. Chebulic myrobalan corrects digestive disorders and can be used for constipation, diarrhea, dysentery, and intestinal parasites. It also has a beneficial effect on the nervous system, nervous disorders, and cancerous tumors. It is an expectorant used for colds, congestion, cough, asthma, bronchitis, and laryngitis, and an astringent used to halt blood or mucous in stool, sputum, or vaginal discharge. The ripe fruit is astringent, demulcent, and antidiarrheal. [A Thai Herbal: Traditional Recipes for Health and Harmony]

Used  in  Ayurveda,  Unani  and  Sidha.  Herbal  preparation  antidyslipemic  and  antioxidant:  Terminalia  bellirica,  Terminalia  chebula,  Andrographis  paniculata  and  Gymnema  sylvestre.  Powder  made  of  Terminalia  chebula  and Asparagus racemosus mixed with milk and drunk for  cooling effect. Insect galls on the leaves crushed and taken  with water to cure asthma. Bark diuretic, cardiotonic, disinfectant, wound dressing; poultice of stem of Opuntia dillenii with bark of Terminalia chebula applied in ulceration in  venereal diseases; latex of Euphorbia neriifolia mixed with  dry powdered bark of Terminalia chebula given in constipation; dry powdered roots of Abroma augustum with bark of  Dillenia indica and Terminalia chebula given in urinary diseases. Seeds eaten for cough; contact therapy, a seed is tied  to the arm or a necklace of seeds is worn to prevent smallpox.  Fruits  laxative,  astringent,  stomachic,  tonic,  antibacterial, antifungal, alterative, for inflamed gums and as a relief in  asthma, often used in combination with Phyllanthus emblica  L. and Terminalia bellirica; fruit paste applied on neck for  cough, and also on forehead for headache; fruit paste applied  on seasonal wounds and cuts of the feet, also used to massage the body to cure bodyache; roots of Neonotonia wightii  ground with the fruits of Terminalia chebula and the paste  used in toothache. Fruit kept in water overnight, the filtrate  used as a soothing eye wash. Dry fruits decoction taken for  diarrhea, stomachache, spleen disorders; dried fruits chewed  and the juice used to cure coughs. Ripe fruit purgative, tonic,  carminative; rind of fruit chewed in asthma and cough; fruits  of Terminalia chebula ground with the latex of Ficus racemosa  and  the  paste  applied  in  rheumatism,  rheumatoid  arthritis. Unripe fruit blood purifier, highly astringent, used  for diarrhea, dysentery, metrorrhagia, digestion, heart, constipation, diseases of lung, used to expel diseases via diarrhea  and urine before taking other medicine; unripe fruit roasted  and chewed to cure cough. Veterinary medicine, leaves of  Cassia italica with flower of Calotropis gigantea and fruit  of Terminalia chebula pounded and given orally in constipation. Stem bark and fruits as fish poison. [CRC World Dictionary of Medicinal and Poisonous Plants]

Gentle purgative, astringent (unripe fruits are more purgative, ripe ones are more astringent; sennoside A and anthraquinone glycoside is laxative, tannins are astringent), stomachic, antibilious, alterative. Used in prescriptions for treating flatulence, constipation, diarrhoea, dysentery, cyst, digestive disorders, vomiting, enlarged liver and spleen, cough and bronchial asthma, and for metabolic harmony. Bark—diuretic. [Indian Medicinal Plants An Illustrated Dictionary]

Uses: The dried immature fruits of Terminalia chebula Retz. (Myrobalans, British Pharmaceutical Codex, 1934) are astringent and contain 20% to 40% of tannins. In Burma, the fruits are eaten to relieve the bowels of costiveness and to invigorate health. In China, the fruits are used to stop flatulence and promote expectoration. In India, the fruits are eaten to invigorate health, promote digestion and expectoration, soothe sore throat and inflamed areas, stop dysentery and vomiting, and to treat ascite (Ayurveda). In Indonesia, the fruits are astringent. In Malaysia, the fruits are used to check bleeding, assuage liver discomfort and stop dysentry. In Vietnam, the fruits are used to relieve the bowels of costiveness.  [Medicinal Plants: Drugs For The Future?]

100 g of fresh corms is boiled in 1 cup (250 mL)  of water for 10–15 min. Then the water is  filtered in a fi ltration pot and the corms are  dried in sunlight for 4–5 h. Then they are  mixed in 60–70 g of  Aloe vera  (Musabbar,  Alons) and 50 g of  Terminalia chebula  (Harir)  and ground for 10–15 min. Thirty or forty  small tablets, 5–6 g each, are made from this  powder; they are stored in a glass or plastic  bottle and given to patients suffering from  rheumatism.  For children,  not used.  For  adults,  1 tablet (5–6 g) of drug (at one time) is  given with 1 cup (250 mL) of milk or water  twice daily (morning–evening) for 15–20 days. [Medicinal Plant Biodiversity of Lesser Himalayas-Pakistan]

Medicinal  use:  Fruits  are  given  internally  in  the  treatment  of  indigestion,  constipation,  dysentery,  jaundice,  piles  and  painful  menstruation,  and  as  a  general tonic.  Externally they are used to treat eye discharges.  Unripe fruit is  purgative  and  ripe  ones  astringent  and  used  also  in  fevers,  coughs,  asthma,  flatulence,  hiccup,  colic,  enlarged  spleen  and  liver,  rheumatism   and  urinary  diseases.  Powdered fruit is useful in carious teeth, bleeding and ulceration of gums. Bark acts as a cardio tonic and diuretic.

Other uses:  The fruit is the source of tannin, dye and ink.  Fruits taste  bitter,  astringent  when  first  chewed,  afterwards  if  water  is  taken,  it  tastes  very  sweet. Wood is greenish yellow, hard and heavy and takes a good polish. The  wood  is  used  for  making  houses,  furniture,  tool  handles,  agricultural  implements etc. Wood extracts contain tannin that are used to produce ink. Traditional use by the herbal healer of Bolipara: Local herbal healers use this  for  several  treatment  purposes  as,  cough,  dysentery,  fever,  food  poisoning.  Jaundice, menstrual problems, rheumatic pain and sore.  Different ethnic groups, such as Chakma, Tripura, Marma, Mru  and Bawm  use this species for  their  treatment.  Several Bengali community of the Bolipara also uses this plant as medicine. [Selected Medicinal Plants of Chittagong Hill Tracts]

536 Published articles of Terminalia chebula

Saturday, March 17, 2012

Terminalia chebula - Haritaki, Karakkaya, Kadukkaya

Terminalia chebula Retz.
Fam.Combretaceae
Sanskrit: Haritaki
Bengali: Harithaki
Hindi: Harad
Telugu:Karakkaya
Tamil: Kadukkaya
Marathi: Harade
Malayalam: Katukka
Oriya: Karedha
Konkani: Ordo
Assamese: Hilika
Gujarati: Harade
Hindi-Harar
Kannada-Alalekai
Kashmir -Halela

Part used: Fruit, Bark
Uses: Haritaki is a rejuvenative, laxative, astringent, anthelmintic, nervine, expectorant, tonic, carminative, and appetite stimulant. Useful in Asthma, Sore throat, Thirst, Vomiting, Hiccough, Eye diseases, Diseases of Heart and Bladder. As an ingradient in Triphala.
277 Articles including some patents are published from 1933
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