Showing posts with label Ocimum basilicum. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Ocimum basilicum. Show all posts

Wednesday, July 8, 2015

Ocimum basilicum, Basil, Tulasi, tirnirupachai

Ocimum basilicum L.
Family: Lamiaceae

Synonyms: Ocimum album L., Ocimum anisatum Benth., Ocimum barrelieri Roth, Ocimum basilicum var. album (L.) Benth., Ocimum basilicum var. basilicum, Ocimum basilicum var. densiflorum Benth., Ocimum basilicum var. difforme Benth., Ocimum basilicum var. glabratum Benth., Ocimum basilicum var. majus Benth., Ocimum basilicum var. purpurascens Benth., Ocimum basilicum var. thyrsiflorum (L.) Benth., Ocimum bullatum Lam., Ocimum caryophyllatum Roxb., Ocimum chevalieri Briq., Ocimum ciliare B.Heyne ex Hook.f., Ocimum ciliatum Hornem., Ocimum citrodorum Blanco, Ocimum cochleatum Desf., Ocimum dentatum Moench, Ocimum hispidum Lam., Ocimum integerrimum Willd., Ocimum lanceolatum Schumach. & Thonn., Ocimum laxum Vahl ex Benth., Ocimum majus Garsault , Ocimum medium Mill., Ocimum minus Garsault , Ocimum nigrum Thouars ex Benth., Ocimum odorum Salisb. , Ocimum scabrum Wight ex Hook.f., Ocimum simile N.E.Br., Ocimum thyrsiflorum L., Ocimum urticifolium Benth. , Plectranthus barrelieri (Roth) Spreng.
  • English: Basil
  • Albanian: Bozilok i mermë
  • Amharic: በሶቢለ
  • Arabic: rehahn, رَيْحَان, ريحان
  • Armenian: Շահասպրամ
  • Azerbaijani: Reyxan
  • Bengali: Babui tulsi
  • Bulgarian: Босилек
  • Burmese: Laun, Pinzainpinzin
  • Catalan: Alfàbega
  • Chinese: 省头草
  • Croatian: Bosiljak
  • Danish: Basilikum
  • Esperanto: Bazilio
  • Estonian: Vürtsbasiilik
  • Finnish: Maustebasilika
  • French: Basilic commun, Basilic à épis nombreux
  • Galician: albahaca
  • Georgian: რეჰანი
  • Gujarati: Sabje
  • Hebrew: בזיליקום
  • Hindi: Babui Tulsi बाबूई तुलसी
  • Hungarian: Bazsalikom
  • Indonesian: Indring
  • Italian: Basilico
  • Japanese: バジル, メボウキ
  • Kannada: ವಿಷ್ಣುತುಳಸಿ, ಶ್ರೀತುಳಸಿ
  • Kazakh: Насыбайгүл
  • Korean: 바실
  • Lithuanian: Bazilikas
  • Malay: sělasi
  • Malayalam: Tirunetru
  • Polish: Bazylia wonna
  • Romanian: Busuioc
  • Russian: Душистые васильки
  • Sanskrit: munjariki
  • Sinhalese: Madurutala
  • Swedish: Basilika
  • Tamil: திருநீற்றுப்பச்சை, tirnirupachai
  • Turkish: Fesleğen
  • Vietnamese: É dỏ
Description: Erect annual herbs to 60 cm tall; stem obtusely 4-angular. Leaves 3.5-6 x 1.5-2.5 cm, ovate-elliptic, base cuneate, margin entire to distantly crenulate, apex acute, puberulous above, pubescent with sessile oil galnds beneath; petiole to 2 cm long. Racemes to 14 cm long; bracts oblanceolate, ciliate; pedicel to 2 mm long. Calyx to 6 mm long; tube c. 3 mm long, sparsely strigose; upper lip c. 3 mm long, broadly ovate; lower lip to 4 mm long, hairy within. Corolla cream, 7-10 mm long; tube c. 4 mm long, inflated below; lobes 5. Stamens 4; filaments of posterior pair with a transverse process of tufted hairs. Nutlets 2-3 x 1-1.5 mm, ellipsoid, black, mucilaginous when wet. Fruiting calyx 6-8 mm long
Used  in  Ayurveda,  Unani  and  Sidha.  Whole  plant  used  to  promote  delayed  menstruation,  whole  plant  boiled  for  morning  sickness.  Mucilaginous  seeds  infusion  given  in  gonorrhea,  dysentery  and  diarrhea.  Leaves  antibacterial,  stimulant,  aphrodisiac,  astringent  and  carminative,  antiyeast, insecticidal, febrifuge, antifungal, antiascariasis, for  gonorrhea, diarrhea, dysentery, kidney diseases, spermatorrhea; leaf decoction mixed with saline water used to keep  away the snakes; leaves pounded and soaked in water, put  in ear for headache; leaves decoction as a postpartum remedy; fresh juice of leaves dropped in nostrils during hysteria.  Flowers and leaves for cough and cold, sore throat and fever.  Ceremonial, whole plant, holy plant. Veterinary medicine,  fruits of Phyllanthus emblica pound with leaves of Ocimum  basilicum and given with honey to cure the loss of appetite;  bark extract of Crateva magna along with leaves of Cassia  fistula ,  seeds  of  Ocimum  basilicum,  butter  and  salt  are  pounded and given orally in tympany [CRC World Dictionary of Medicinal and Poisonous Plants]

Basil is an important culinary herb. Dried sweet basil leaves are aromatic, fragrant, and sweet, with a warm clove­like flavor with pungent undertones. The fresh or dehydrated  leaves (sometimes also the flowering tops) are added to soups, meat pies, fish dishes, and certain cheeses. The leaves complement various vegetable  dishes, including artichoke, broccoli, carrot, cabbage, eggplant, green beans, peas, squash, zucchini, and cooked cucumber. Many consider basil to be the best  accompaniment to tomatoes (even a Bloody Mary), tomato cocktails, peppers, and eggplants (all belonging to the potato family). So good is it with tomatoes that  Italian tomato paste cans often contain a leaf of basil (Duke 1985). Chopped basil leaves season lamb dishes, dressings, stuffings and pâtés. The green leaves are also  used in salads and on pizza in addition to or instead of oregano. Dehydrated basil is very important in Italian cooking, notably in tomato sauce, pizza, spaghetti,  macaroni, chicken cacciatore, and cheese casseroles. Rinzler (1990) states that basil goes well with fruits, and suggests sprinkling some on a baked apple. Fresh basil  is essential for the famous Italian pesto sauce, an oil­and­herb mixture made by pounding the leaves to a pulp in a mortar and combining salt, garlic, olive oil, parmesan  cheese and pine or walnuts. The French add basil to omelets and soups. It is also sometimes an ingredient of "bouquet garni" (a combined bunch of herbs popular in  France, typically thyme, rosemary and laurel). Fresh leaves are best added towards the end of cooking tune to retain a desirable flavor and aroma. Small leaves are  best used whole. Fresh leaves are much more flavorful than dried, and are to be preferred when available. Large leaves should be torn rather than cut to preserve their flavor. However, Mességué and Peter (1982) recommend cutting basil into strips on a board, or with scissors, but not  chopping it. Lemon basil can be used to make a flavorful tea. The oil of basil is sometimes added as a flavoring for confectionary, candy, baked goods, and commercial condiments such as chile sauces, catsup, tomato paste,  pickles, and specialty vinegars. It is an important ingredient in some types of sausages and spiced meats. The oil is sometimes a component of dental and oral  products. It is also used occasionally in perfumes (Prakash 1990). A tincture of oil (combined with 20­60% ethanol) is employed as a flavor modifier for some  liqueurs, such as Chartreuse (Greenhalgh 1979). An oleoresin is also obtained from basil but its commercial usage is negligible (Greenhalgh 1979). In the Near East, basil seeds are consumed alone or in bread dough (Morton 1976). The mucilaginous coating of the seeds was once used to prepare a tonic drink  (Morton 1976). Basil flowers are an attractive decoration on soups and salads (Leggatt 1987), and are said to be eaten in China (Duke 1985). Purple­leaved cultivars  are Of ornamental value, but are as aromatic as regular green­leaved sweet basils (Simon and Reiss­Bubenheim 1987), and may be perfectly acceptable for culinary .

Dominican Medicinal Uses   The aerial parts or leaves are traditionally  prepared as a tea and taken orally for stomach  ache, indigestion, gastro-intestinal pain, internal  cleansing and women’s health conditions. [Dominican Medicinal Plants: A Guide for Health Care Providers]

Ttraditional uses in Tunisia - Leaves as Aphrodisiac, headaches, gynaecological disorders. [Ethnomedicinal Plants Revitalization of Traditional Knowledge of Herbs]

In  China,  the  seeds  are  used  to soothe  pain  and  inflammation.  In  India,  the  juice expressed from the leaves is used as nasal douche, and the plant is used to treat inflammation and assuage chronic pain in the joints. In Malaysia, the juice expressed from the leaves is drunk to calm cough, and the plant i s used to abrogate pregnancy. In Cambodia, Vietnam, and Laos, the leaves are used to break fever. The anti-inflammatory property of the plant is confirmed by Singh et al. [Ethnopharmacology of Medicinal Plants Asia and the Pacific]

The herb in Italian cooking, basil relieves upper digestive discomfort, indigestion, and bloating, and is applied topically to acne and insect bites. Antibacterial  •  Insecticidal •  mild sedative  •  relieves gas  Juice from the leaves can be applied neat to infected spots and insect bites and stings to speed healing. [Herbal Remedies]

Flower—stimulant, carminative, antispasmodic, diuretic, demulcent. Seed—antidysenteric.
Juice of the plant—antibacterial. Essential oil—antibacterial, antifungal, insecticidal. Because of high estragole content of the essential oil, the herb should not be taken during pregnancy, nursing or over extended periods of time. [Indian Medicinal Plants An Illustrated Dictionary]

In China, the leaves are used to invigorate health, treat flatulence, heal ulcers, curb vomiting, remove nasal polyps and to cure hiccups. The seeds are used to assuage eyes discomfort and to heal ulcers. In Indonesia, the seeds are used to relieve the bowels of costiveness. In Malaysia, the juice expressed from the leaves is used to alleviate cough. A decoction is used to aid recovery from childbirth, promote menses and to combat fever. The seeds are used to combat fever. In Vietnam, the plant is used in perfume making, to invigorate health, treat dysentery and to combat fever. The ashes of the roots are used to treat skin diseases. Ocimum basilicum L. is listed in the French Pharmacopoeia, 1989 and known of Dioskurides [Medicinal Plants: Drugs For The Future? ]

Leaf: Infusion for a sedative and antispasmodic. [Medicinal Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana) ]

Improves digestion, antitoxic; headache, irregular menses. [Taiwanese Native Medicinal Plants]

495 Published articles of Ocimum basilicum
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