Showing posts with label Myristica fragrans. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Myristica fragrans. Show all posts

Sunday, April 14, 2013

Myristica fragrans, Nutmeg, Jatiphal, Jajikaya, Jatiphala, Jayaphala



Myristica fragrans Houtt.
Family: Myristicaceae
Synonyms: Myristica aromatica Lam. , Myristica moschata Thunb., Myristica officinalis Mart., Myristica officinalis L. f.
  • Common name: Nutmeg
  • Assamese: জাইফল jaiphol
  • Bengali: জাতিফল jatiphala, জায়ফল jayaphala
  • Garo: joipol
  • Gujarati: જાયફળ jayaphala
  • Hindi: जातीफल jati-phal, जायफल jayaphal
  • Kannada: ಜಾಕಾಯಿ jakayi, ಜಾತೀಫಲ jatiphala
  • Kashmiri: जातीफलम् jatiphalam, ज़ाफल् zaphal
  • Khasi: jaiphol
  • Konkani: जायफळ jayaphal
  • Malayalam: ജാതി jathi, ജാതിക്കാ jathikka
  • Manipuri: জায়ফল jayfal
  • Marathi: जातीफल jatiphala, जायफळ jayaphala
  • Nepali: जाइफल् jaiphal
  • Oriya: ଜାଇଫଳ jaiphala
  • Punjabi: ਜਾਫਲ jafal
  • Sanskrit: जातिफल jatiphala
  • Tamil: சாதிக்காய் cati-k-kay
  • Telugu: జాజికాయ jajikaya
  • Tibetan: dza ti pha la
  • Urdu: جائيپهل jayaphal
Other vernacular names: Amharic : Gabz, Gewz, Arabic : Basbas, Basbasah, Fuljan, Jawz At-Tiyb, Josat Al Teeb, Josat Al-Tib, Jasat At-Tib, Jouza, Al-Teeb, Jouza At-Teeb, Jousbuva, Jouzuttib, Jowz Buwwa, Armenian : Meshgengouz, Mshkenkoyz, Azerbaijani : Covuz, Covuz Qoz, Basque : Intxaur Muskatu, Brazil : Bicuiba, Flor De Noz Moscada, Noz, Moscada ( Portuguese ), Bulgarian : Indijsko Orekhche, Burmese : Mutwinda, Zadeikpo, Catalan : Nou Moscada, Chinese : Dauh Kau Syuh, Dou Kou, Dhu, Rou, Dou Kou, Rou Dou Kou Yi, Rou Guo, Rou Kou, Yu Guo, Yu Guo Hua, Yuhk Dauk Kau Croatian : Macis, Muškatni Cvjetić, Muškatni, Oraščić, Cyprus : Moschokarido, Czech : Muškátovník Pravý, Muškátovník Vonný, Danish : Muskat, Muskatblomme, Muskatnød, Muskatnødtræ, Dhivehi : Thakoovah, Dutch : Foelie (Mace), Muskaatboom, Nootmuskaat, Nootmuskaatboom Eastonian : Lõhnav Muskaadipuu, Maasis, skaatpähkel, Muskaatõis, Esperanto : Miristiko Floro, Miristiko Nukso, Miristiki Semo, Muskato, Finnish : Muskotti, Muskottikukka, Muskottipähkinä, Muskottipuu, French : Fleur De Muscade, Macis, Muscade, Muscadier, Muscadier Commun, Muscadier, Cultivé, Noix De Banda, Noix De Banda, Noix, De Muscade, Noix Muscade, Pied De Muscade, Pied-Muscade Muscadier, Gallegan : Noz Moscada, Greek : Moschokarido, Hebrew : Egoz Muskat, Egoz Musqat, Mays, Hungarian : (Valódi) Muskátdió(Fa),, Szerecsendió(Fa), Szerecsendió Virág, Indonesia : Fuli (Mace), Buah Pala, Bumbu (Mace in Javanese, Malay, Sundanese), Pala, Pala, Banda, Sekar Pala (Mace in Javanese), Bunga, Pala (Mace in Malay), Kambang Pala (Mace in Javanese, Malay, Sundanese), Kulit Pala, Kulumud Pala (Mace in Sundanese), Italian : Mace, Noce Moscata, Japanese : Mesu, Natumegu, Nikuzuku, Khmer : Pôch Kak, Korean : Meisu, Neotumek, Notumek, Yuktugu, Laotian : Chan Th’e:D, Latvian : Muskatrieksts, Lithuanian : Kvapusis Muskatmedis, Macis,, Muskatas Muskato Žiedai, Malaysia : Buah Pala, Kembang Pala (Mace),, Pala, Poko Pala, Maltese : Nuċimuskáta, Nepalese : Jaaiipatrii, Jayaphal, Norwegian : Muskat, Muskatblomme, Muskatnøtt, Papiamento : Netmuskat, Persian : Basbaz, Djus Hendi, Jouz Hendi, Jouzboyah, Philippinese : Duguan ( Tagalog), Polish : Gałka Muszkatołowa, Muszkat, Muszkatowiec, Portuguese : Moscadeira, Nuz Moscada, Romanian : Frunzis.oară, Nucs.oară, Russian : Muskatnii Orekh, Muskatnyj Orekh,, Muskatnyj Tsvet, Muskatnogo Orekha,, Mushkatnoi Drechi, Sushonaya Shelukha, Singapore : Buah Pala, Pokok Pala, Slovak : Muškátovník Voňavý, Muškátový Kvet, Muškátový Orech Slovenian : Muškat, Muškatni Cvet, Muškatni, Orešček, Spanish : Corteza De La Nuez Moscada, Macia, Macis, Moscadero, Moscada, Neuz Moscada, Neuz Muscada, Nogal Moscado, Sri Lanka : Sadhika, Wasa-Vasi ( Sinhalese ), Swahili : Basibasi, Kungumanga, Swedish : Muskott Muskotnöt, Musotblomma, Thai : Chan-Thet ( Central ), Chan-Ban ( Northern ),, Dok Chand, Dok Chand Nattes, Luk Chand, Tibetan : Dza Ti, Zati, Turkey : Besbase, Cevz Buva, Industan Djevisi, Ukrainian : Muskatnyj Horikh, Vietnamese : Dâu Khâu, Nhuc Dâu Khau, Yiddish : Mushkat, Mushkatnoys, Muskat,, Muskatnus.Icelandic : Masi, Múskat, Múskathýði

Part used: Endosperm of dried seeds

Ayurvedic uses: Atisara, Svasa, Chardi, Kasa, Pinasa, Grahani, Mukharoga, Sukrameha [API - Part-1, Vol-1]
Antibacterial, antidiarrhoeal, abortifacient [Medicinal Plants, Kerala Agricultural University]
The active principle in nutmeg is myristicin, a catecholamine-like phenylpropanoid [Ethnopharmacology of Medicinal Plants: Asia And The Pacific]

Myristica fragrans Decoction infusions for dysmenorrhea, in postpartum depurants. Possible aphrodisiac [Ethnomedicinal Plants Revitalization of Traditional Knowledge of Herbs]

Activities  — Abortifacient, Allergenic, Analgesic, Antibacterial, Anticancer, Antiedemic, Antiinflammatory, Antioxidant, Antiperistaltic, Antiseptic, Antitumor, Aphrodisiac, Astringent, Carminative, Digestive, Emmenagogue, Euphoric, Expectorant, Fungicide, Hallucinogen, Hepatotoxic, Herbicide, Hypocholesterolemic, Larvicide, Narcotic, Poison, Psychotropic, Sedative, Soporific, Stimulant, Stomachic .
Indications  — Agoraphobia, Anorexia, Arthrosis, Asthma, Bacteria, Cancer, Cancer, gum, Cancer, joint, Cancer, liver, Cancer, mouth, Cancer, spleen, Childbirth, Cholera, Cold, Colic, Cramp, Cystosis, Debility, Diarrhea, Dysentery, Dysmenorrhea, Dyspepsia, Fever, Fungus, Gas, Gastrosis, Headache, Heart, Heartburn, Hemorrhoid, Hepatosis, High Cholesterol, Hypercalcemia, Hypochondria, Hysteria, Impotence, Induration, Infection, Inflammation, Insanity, Insomnia, Lacrimosis, Leprosy, Leukorrhea, Lymphosis, Malaria, Mycosis, Nausea, Nephrosis, Nervousness, Neuralgia, Neurasthenia, Neurosis, Ophthalmia, Pain, Paralysis, Pneumonia, Respirosis, Rheumatism, Sciatica, Splenosis, Sprain, Stomachache, Stomatosis, Swelling, Toothache, Tuberculosis, Tumor, Urethrosis, UTI, Vomiting, Xerostomia. [Handbook of Medicinal Herbs, 2nd Ed.]

Major constituents: Satrole, myristicin, lauric, oleic, stearic, hexadecenoic, linoleic acid, d-camphene.
Essential oils: Oleoresin, alpha-, beta-pinene, alpha-, beta-terpinene, sabinene, myristicin, elincin, safrole, camphene, cymene, eugenol, linalool, pinene, safrole, terpineol. Internally for diarrhea dysentery, vomiting, abdominal distention, indigestion, and colic. [Handbook of herbs and spices Vol-3]

Medicinal Uses: Considered aphrodisiac, astringent, carminative, narcotic, and stimulant. Mace has been used for putrid and intermittent fevers and mild indigestion. The expressed oil of nutmeg is used externally as a stimulant. They are used to allay both gas and nausea. Mixed with lard, grated nutmeg is applied to piles. Roasted nutmeg is used internally for leucorrhea. The EO is recommended for inflammation of the bladder and urinary tract. Chinese use powdered seeds for pediatric and geriatric fluxes, for cardosis, cold, cramps, and chronic rheumatism. Indonesians boil the powdered seed for anorexia, colic, diarrhea, dyspepsia, dysentery, and malaria. Seed oil is rubbed on the temples for headache or dropped in tea for dyspepsia and nausea. Indonesians use the leaf tea for gas. Malayans use the nutmeg for madness, malaria, puerperium, rheumatism, and sciatica. Arabians, as early as the seventh century nutmeg for digestive disorders, kidney troubles, lymphatic ailments, etc. Even earlier, Indians used it for asthma, fever, heart disease, and tuberculosis. In India, nutmeg is prescribed for dysentery, gas, malaria, leprosy, rheumatism, sciatica, and stomachache. Arabs still use nutmeg as an aphrodisiac in love potions. Nutmeg butter is used in massage for arthritis, paralysis, rheumatism, sciatica, and sprains. It is also used as an external stimulant in hair lotions, ointments, and plaster (MPI). Yemenites recommend its use for the liver and spleen, for colds, fevers, and respiratory ailments. [CRC Handbook of Medicinal Spices]

The psychoactivity of nutmeg is believed to be caused by ingredients of the volatile oil. The main ingredients of the volatile oil of nutmeg are the alkenebenzene derivatives elemicin, myristicin, and safrole. [Herbal Drugs: Ethnomedicine to Modern Medicine]

Nutmeg, in high doses or over a long period of time, can cause mental or nervous disturbances. It should always be used with caution, as it is very stimulating. Can overstimulate the brain and heart, causing hallucinations, delirium, convulsions and numbness. Avoid in the first trimester of pregnancy. Should not be used on children. Use sparingly. [Horticultural, Medicinal and Aromatic Plants]

Nutmeg—carminative, spasmolytic, antiemetic, orexigenic; topically anti-inflammatory. Mace—stimulant carminative. Narcotic in high doses.  The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India recommends the kernel of the fruit in spermatorrhoea. An aqueous extract of nutmeg is reported to show anti-secretory activity against E. coli heat-labile enterotoxin; the hexane soluble fraction of the alcoholic extract inhibited the heat-labile and heat-stable-enterotoxin-induced secretory response in animal studies. [Indian Medicinal Plants An Illustrated Dictionary]

Actions/Indications: Chronic diarrhoea, daybreak or cock’s crow diarrhoea due to cold deficiency. Cold in the Spleen and Stomach, epigastric pain and distension, abdominal pain and distension, decreased appetite, dry heaves due to cold deficiency of the Spleen and Stomach. Feeling of cold due to cold deficiency. Toxicity dosages of greater than 7.5 g of the powdered seed may lead to dizziness and stupor. Very high overdose can lead to death. The oil causes nausea and tachycardia; both the oil and the nut in high doses cause hallucinations and abortions. Due to metabolism of the phenylpropane component into amfetamine, overdose may lead to thirst, nausea, redness and swelling of the face, frequent urination, mild changes in consciousness leading up to intensive hallucinations. Stupor may last up to 2–3 days. The nut may also cause contact dermatitis. [A Materia Medica for Chinese medicine]

The essential oil is associated in the nut with a solid fat. The oil contains pinene, camphene, borneol, geraniol and eugenol and in the last portions of the distillate, myristicin (methylene-dioxy-methoxyallylphenol) belonging to the phenylisopropylamines. [Medicinal plants in tropical West Africa]

The dried seed kernals of nutmeg contain 5 to 15 per cent of volatile oil and up to 40 per cent of fats. The volatile oil contains d-camphene, d-pinene, dipentene, d-borneol, I-terpineol, geraniol, safrole and a toxic substance myristicin. A saponin is also said to be present in nutmeg. Beckwith says that powdered nutmeg is given to women in labour. [Medlcinal Plants of Jamaica]

Fruit: A piece is chewed to alleviate stomachache in Surinam. Seed: The seed and its aril are employed as an excitant and stimulant in French Guiana. [Medicinal Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana)]

Unproven Uses: Internal folk medicine uses of nutmeg include diarrhoea and dysentery, inflammation of the stomach membranes, cramps, flatulence and vomiting. Externally, the oil is used for rheumatism, sciatica, neuralgia and disorders of the upper respiratory tract. Chinese Medicine: Indications include diarrhoea, vomiting and digestive problems. Indian Medicine: Indications in Indian medicine include headaches, poor vision, insomnia, fever and malaria, cholera, impotence and general debility. Homeopathic Uses: Among uses in homeopathy are nervous physical symptoms, digestive problems with flatulence and disturbed perception.  [PDR for Herbal Medicines]

Siddha uses: Pasi kuraivu, Iraippu, irumal, Naalpatta kazhichal, vindukkuraivu

Unani uses: Zof-e-Bah, Qula, Falij, Laqwa, Zof-e-Basarat, Nafkh-e-Shikam

181 Published articles of Myristica fragrans
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Piper nigrum Pisonia aculeata Pistia stratiotes Pisum sativum Plantago orbignyana Plantago ovata Platanthera edgeworthii Platostoma elongatum Plectranthus barbatus Plectranthus scutellarioides Plumbago auriculata Plumbago capensis Plumbago zeylanica Plumeria rubra Podranea ricasoliana Polemonium caeruleum Polygala crotalarioides Polygala persicariifolia Polygonatum verticillatum Polygonum amplexicaule Polygonum barbatum Polygonum recumbens Pongamia pinnata Portulaca oleracea Portulaca umbraticola Portulacaria afra Potentilla fruticosa Potentilla supina Premna corymbosa Premna tomentosa Primula denticulata Primula floribunda Primula vulgaris Prunus Amygdalus Prunus dulcis Pseuderanthemum carruthersii Pseudobombax ellipticum Pseudocaryopteris foetida Psidium guajava Psidium guineense Pterocarpus santalinus Pterospermum acerifolium Pterospermum lanceifolium Pterygota alata Pulicaria dysenterica Punica granatum Putranjiva roxburghii Pyrostegia venusta Quisqualis indica Ranunculus arvensis Ranunculus laetus Ranunculus sceleratus Raphanus sativus Rauvolfia serpentina Rauvolfia tetraphylla Reinwardtia indica Rhamphicarpa fistulosa Rhodiola trifida Rhodiola wallichiana Rhododendron arboreum Rhynchosia himalensis Rhynchosia viscosa Ricinus communis Rorippa indica Roscoea purpurea Rosmarinus officinalis Ruellia patula Ruellia prostrata Ruellia tuberosa Rumex dentatus Rumex hastatus Rungia pectinata Saccharum officinarum Saccharum spontaneum Salix denticulata Salix tetrasperma Salvadora persica Salvia involucrata Salvia nubicola Salvia splendens Sambucus canadensis Sambucus mexicana Sambucus nigra Santalum album Sapindus saponaria Saussurea auriculata Saussurea candicans Saussurea obvallata Scadoxus multiflorus Scutellaria grossa Scutellaria repens Sedum oreades Semecarpus anacardium Senna auriculata Senna occidentalis Senna siamea Senna sophera Sesbania bispinosa Sesbania grandiflora Seseli diffusum Sesuvium portulacastrum Setaria verticillata Shorea robusta Sida cordata Sida cordifolia Sida retusa Sida spinosa Sideritis hirsuta Smithia ciliata Solanum chrysotrichum Solanum erianthum Solanum jasminoides Solanum melongena Solanum nigrum Solanum sisymbriifolium Solanum surattense Solanum torvum Solanum tuberosum Solanum villosum Soymida febrifuga Sphaeranthus amaranthoides Sphenoclea zeylanica Spiranthes australis Spiranthes sinensis Spondias pinnata Stellaria media Stephania japonica Sterculia alata Sterculia foetida Sterculia villosa Stereospermum tetragonum Stevia rebaudiana Striga asiatica Strophanthus boivinii Strychnos potatorum Suaeda maritima Suregada multiflora Swertia angustifolia Swertia bimaculata Swertia cordata Swertia paniculata Swietenia macrophylla Swietenia mahagoni Syzygium alternifolium Syzygium aromaticum Syzygium cumini Syzygium jambos Syzygium samarangense Tabebuia aurea Tabebuia avellanedae Talinum portulacifolium Tamarindus indica Taxus baccata Tecoma castanifolia Tephrosia purpurea Teramnus labialis Terminalia alata Terminalia catappa Terminalia chebula Terminalia elliptica Terminalia pallida Teucrium botrys Teucrium royleanum Thalictrum foliolosum Thespesia populnea Thunbergia erecta Thunbergia fragrans Thunbergia grandiflora Thymus linearis Tiliacora acuminata Tiliacora racemosa Tinospora cordifolia Tinospora crispa Tinospora sinensis Toona ciliata Trewia nudiflora Tribulus terrestris Trichodesma indicum Trichosanthes cucumerina Trichosanthes palmata Trichosanthes tricuspidata Trifolium repens Trigonella foenum-graecum Triumfetta rhomboidea Uraria picta Urena lobata Urena sinuata Urginea coromandeliana Vachellia horrida Valeriana jatamansi Vanda tessellata Veronica serpyllifolia Viburnum coriaceum Vicia bakeri Vicia faba Vicia sativa Vigna radiata Vigna unguiculata Vinca rosea Viola rupestris Viscum album Vitex negundo Vitis vinifera Withania somnifera Wrightia tinctoria Wulfeniosis amherstiana Zamia furfuracea Ziziphus jujuba Ziziphus mauritiana