Showing posts with label Moringa oleifera. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Moringa oleifera. Show all posts

Friday, October 19, 2012

Moringa oleifera shigru munaga Senjana murungai

Moringa oleifera Lam.
Family: Moringaceae
Synonym(S) : Guilandina moringa L., Hyperanthera arborea J.F. Gmel. , Hyperanthera decandra Willd. ,  Hyperanthera moringa (L.) Vahl , Moringa erecta Salisb. ,   Moringa moringa (L.) Small,  Moringa octogona Stokes , Moringa parvifolia Noronha , Moringa polygona DC. ,  Moringa pterygosperma  Gaertn., nom. illeg.,  Moringa zeylanica Pers.


Arabic : Alim, Halim (Sudan), Habbah ghaliah, Rawag (Sudan), Ruwag (Sudan), Shagara al ruwag (Sudan), Shagara al ruway (Sudan).
Assamese :  Sojina.
Bambara :  Anamambo (Mali), Anamorongo (Mali), Feliimorongo (Mali), Felikambo (Mali),  Felikamoranga (Mali), Landihazo (Mali), Moringa, Moringy (Mali), Névrédé.
Bengali : Munga ara,       Saajanaa (Sajna), Sojna, Sojne danta, Sujana.
Burmese :  Daintha, Dandalonbin, Dan da lun, Dan da lun bin.
Chinese : La mu.
Czech : Moringa olejná.
Danish : Behennødtræ.
Dutch : Benboom, Peperwortel boom.
English : Ben tree, Behn tree, Behen tree, Benzolive tree (USA), Drumstick, Drumstick tree, Horseradish tree, West Indian ben.
French : Ben ailé, Ben ailée, Ben oléifère, Moringa ailée, Pois quénique.
German : Behenbaum, Behennussbaum, Meerrettichbaum, Pferderettichbaum.
Gujarati :  Midho saragavo, Saragavo, Saragvo, Seeng ni phali, Suragavo.
Hausa :   Bagaruwar maka (Nigeria), Bagaruwar masar (Nigeria), Barambo, Danga, Koraukin zaila (Nigeria), Mágurua maser (Togo) , Rimin nacara (Nigeria), Rimin turawa (Nigeria), Samarin, Shipka hali (Nigeria), Shuka halinka (Nigeria), Zogalagandi (Cameroun), Zôgala gandi (Niger), Zogalla-gandi (Nigeria), Zogale.
Hindi :      मुनगा   Munagaa, Munga ara, Munuga, Muranka, Muruggai, सहिजन   Sahijan,  सहजन  Sahjan, संजना  Sanjna, सहुनजा   Sahunajaa, Shajmah, सहजना  Shajna, Segra, सेंजन   Senjana,  Shekta (as M. pterygosperma), Sekta ni sing, Soanjna, Suhujna.
Hungarian : Lóretekfa.
Italian : Been, Bemen.
Japanese :   マ ルンガイ Marungai,  モ リンガ・オレイフェラ   Marunga oreifera,  ワサビノキ Wasabi no ki,    Wasabi no ki.
Kannada :  Nuggaeekayee, Nuggekayee.
Khmer : Daem mrom, Daem mrum.
Laotian :  B'loum.
Malagasy :  Anamambo, Anamorongo, Feliimorongo, Felikambo,  Felikamoranga, Landihazo, Moringa, Moringy.
Malay :  Kachang kelur, Kelor (Bali, Java), Kalor (Indonesia), Lemunggai,  Meringgai, Remunggai ,  Sajor kelor, Semunggai, Smunggai, Semunggai, Tjelor (Bali).
Malayalam : Moringa, Morunna, Muringa, Muringai, Muringakka (fruit), Murinna, Sigru.
Marathi :  शेवगा  Shevga, Shevga chi seeng, Shivga, Sujna.
Nepalese :  Sajiwan, Sitachini, Swejan.
Oriya :   Munigha, Sajana, Saijna, Sajina, Shajna, Soandal,  Sujuna.
Persian :   درخت ترب اسبی
Portuguese : Acácia branca, Moringa, Muringueiro.
Punjabi :      Saajinaa, Sanjina, Soanjana.
Russian :   Моринга олейфера   Moringa oleifera, Моринга масличная.
Sanskrit :  Danshamula,  Shobhanjana, Sigru शिग्रुः,
Sinhalese :       Moo rin guu (moh-RIN-guh) ,     Murunga (bean / pod), Murunga gasa (tree),      Murunga kolaya, Murunga kolle (leaves).
Spanish :  Árbol del ben,  Arbol do los aspáragos,  Arbol de las perlas (Mexico), Arbol do los aspáragos, Babano del arbo, Ben, Jacinto (Panama), Jasmin francés, Jazmin francés (Puerto Rico), Maranga, Maranga calalu (Honduras), Marango (Costa Rica, Nicaragua), Palo de aceite ( Dominican Republic), Palo de abejas (Dominican Republic), Paraíso, Paraíso blanco (Guatemala), Paraíso de Espana (Mexico), Perla de la India (Mexico), Perlas del oriente (Mexico), Perlas (Guatemala), Resada (Puerto Rico).
Swahili :  Mboga chungu (Tanzania),  Mjungu moto (Tanzania), Mlonge (Kenya), Mlongo (Kenya), Mronge (Kenya), Mrongo (Kenya), Mlongo (Kenya), Mzunze (Kenya), Mzungu (Kenya) Shingo (Kenya).
Tagalog :  Kalungai, Kamalungua, Malongai, Malungai, Malunggay talbos, Mulangai, Mulangay, Mulanggay.
Tamil : Murunga,  முறுங்கை   Murungai,  முருங்கை  Murunkai ,  முருங்கை மரம்  Murungai maram (tree), Murunkak kai.
Telugu :  Mulakkaya, Mulana, Munaga మునగ,
Thai :   กาแน้งเดิง   Ka naeng doeng,  มะค้อนก้อม  Ma khon kom,    มะรุม  Ma rum (bean / pod),  ผักอีฮึม  Phak i huem,  ผักอีฮุม  Phak i hum (Phak eehuem),   ผักเนื้อไก่   Phak nuea kai,    ผักมะรุม  Phak ma rum (leaves),  เส่ช่อยะ  Se cho ya.
Urdu :  Sahajna.
Vietnamese : Chùm ngây.
Visayan :  Alungai, Dool, Malungit, Kamunggay.
Yoruba :  Adagba malero (Nigeria), Ewé igablé (Benin), Ewé igbalé (Nigeria), Ewé ilé (Benin, Nigeria), Ewe igbale (Nigeria), Ewé oyibo (Benin), Idagbo monoyé (Nigeria), Oyibo.

Ayurvedic uses: Sopha, Gulma, Krimiroga, Medoroga, Pliharoga, Vidradhi, Galaganda. Vrana Vikara, Grandhi, Gulma, karnasula, Vidradhi,
Visarpa, Mukhajadya, Asmari, Mutra sarkara, Kustha, Kshata, Antarvidradhi.
Abortifacient, spasmolytic, antibacterial

In rural Sudan, powdered seeds are used to purify drinking water by coagulation. In trials, the powder was toxic to guppies ( Poecilia reticulata ), protozoa ( Tetrahymena pyriformis ), and bacteria ( Escherichia coli ), and it inhibited acetylcholinesterase. It might serve as a fruit- and vegetable-preservative. In low concentrations, it protects mice against staphylococcus infections. Juice from the leaves and stem bark inhibits Staphyloccoccus aureus but not Escherichia coli . One study showed bark extracts active against Bacillus subtilis, Dip. pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Micrococcus pyogenes, Salmonella typhosa, Shigella dysenteri, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Vibrio comma . Bark extract fungicidal to Candida albicans, Helminthosporium sativum, Microsporum gypseum , and Trichiphyton mentagrophytes . The 50% ethanolic extract of root bark (devoid of antibacterial activity) was antiviral to the vaccinia virus but not Ranikhet disease virus, but it did inhibit its replication. Ether leaf extracts were bacteriostatic to Staphylococcus aureus and S. typhosa . Alcohol extracts may contain an adrenergic neurone blocking agent (CRC handbook of medicinal spices)

The seed contains traces of an alkaloid. The stem yields a gum which contains dextrin. bassorin, and the enzymes emulsin and myrosin: it is also said to contain an alkaloid-moringenine. In Jamaica the bark steeped in alcohol is used as a counter-irritant in cases of pains and headache and a tea made with the leaves is used as a beverage. The Yorubas of Africa use the leaf as an application for headache. The root has been employed for its rubefacient properties in a number of countries including Ceylon, Trinidad and Africa. In Ceylon the bark is said to promote digestion and appetite and in Mauritius the plant is thought to have diuretic, purgative. vermifuge and antispasmodic properties. Among some African tribes the gum is used for diarrhoea. In Cuba the leaves are sometimes employed as a dressing for pimples. Descourtilz reported that the Caribs considered the juice cleansing and antiscorbutic; that the seeds were purgative; a tincture of the root or stem bark "as antiscorbutic” and that warmed leaves were efficacious as a dressing for syphilitic ulcers. Numerous other virtues are ascribed to the plant in India (Medicinal Plants Of Jamaica)

Menstrual disorder, tingling and numbness, oedema, dry cough, menorrhagia, hypertension, as agent to increase spermatogenesis and to improve memory. (Medicinal Plants Of Myanmar)

Root: Bark is rubefacient, used for hoarseness, sore throat and scurvy. Stem: Bark is antiscorbutic. Seed: Bitter, purgative, febrifuge. (Medicinal Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana))

Siddha uses: Vayvu, Vitankal, Ceri mantam, Kan noy, Veri, Veppam terikkun talainoy.

Unani uses: Qatile Kirme Amaa, Mushtahi, Mohallile Waram

547 Published articles of Moringa oleifera
If you find objectionable content on this blog please Email me anandkumarreddy at gmail dot com I will remove it. The contents of this blog are meant for students and researchers of Indian system of Medicine for educational purpose and not for commercial use.

This site uses cookies from Google to deliver its services, to personalise ads and to analyse traffic. Information about your use of this site is shared with Google. By using this site, you agree to its use of cookies.

Labels

Abelmoschus esculentus Abelmoschus ficulneus Abies pindrow Abies spectabilis Abies webbiana Abroma augusta Abrus precatorius Abutilon hirtum Abutilon indicum Acacia catechu Acacia farnesiana Acacia horrida Acacia nilotica Acalypha wilkesiana Acer acuminatum Acer cappadocicum Achillea millefolium Achyranthes aspera Aconitum heterophyllum Adhatoda vasica Aegle marmelos Aerva javanica Aeschynomene americana Aesculus indica Ageratum conyzoides Alangium salviifolium Albizia saman Alcea rosea Aleurites moluccana Aleurites triloba Allium cepa Alocasia fornicata Alocasia indica Alocasia macrorrhizos Aloe vera Alpinia calcarata Alpinia galanga Alpinia officinarum Alstonia scholaris Alternative and Complementary Medicine Journals Amaranthus caudatus Amaranthus graecizans Amaranthus viridis Ammannia baccifera Ammi majus Amomum subulatum Amorphophallus paeoniifolius Anacyclus pyrethrum Anagallis arvensis Andrographis echioides Andrographis paniculata Anemone rivularis Anemone tetrasepala Anthocephalus cadamba Anthurium andraeanum Apium leptophyllum Apluda mutica Arabidopsis thaliana Arachis hypogaea Argemone mexicana Arisaema tortuosum Aristolochia littoralis Artocarpus heterophyllus Arundinella setosa Arundo donax Aster albescens Astragalus leucocephalus Asystasia gangetica Avena sativa Averrhoa carambola Azadirachta indica Bacopa monnieri Bambusa Bambos Bambusa multiplex Bambusa vulgaris Barleria cristata Barleria prionitis Basilicum polystachyon Bauhinia purpurea Bauhinia racemosa Bauhinia scandens Bauhinia vahlii Bauhinia variegata Benincasa hispida Biophytum sensitivum Bixa orellana Blepharis integrifolia Blepharis maderaspatensis Blumea lacera Boerhavia diffusa Bombax ceiba Borassus flabellifer Boswellia ovalifoliolata Boswellia serrata Buchnera hispida Butea monosperma Caesalpinia bonduc Caesalpinia pulcherrima Cajanus scarabaeoides Caladium bicolor Caleana major Calendula officinalis Calophyllum inophyllum Calotropis gigantea Calotropis procera Camellia sinensis Campanula latifolia Cananga odorata Canscora diffusa Capparis sepiaria Capparis zeylanica Cardamine hirsuta Cardiocrinum giganteum Cardiospermum halicacabum Carduus edelbergii Carrichtera annua Carthamus oxyacantha Carthamus tinctorius Carum carvi Cassia angustifolia Cassia auriculata Cassia fistula Cassia occidentalis Catesbaea spinosa Catharanthus roseus Cayratia trifolia Cedrela toona Ceiba insignis Ceiba pentandra Celastrus paniculatus Celosia argentea Centella asiatica Cestrum diurnum Chaerophyllum reflexum Chamaesyce hypericifolia Chenopodium album Chenopodium ambrosioides Chenopodium murale Chrozophora rottleri Cicer arietinum Cinnamomum camphora Cinnamomum tamala Cinnamomum verum Cissampelos pareira Citrullus lanatus Cleistanthus patulus Clematis gouriana Clematis montana Cleome gynandra Clerodendrum chinense Clerodendrum indicum Clerodendrum infortunatum Clerodendrum philippinum Clerodendrum phlomidis Clerodendrum serratum Clerodendrum splendens Coccinia grandis Cocculus hirsutus Cocculus laurifolius Cochlospermum religiosum Coix lacryma-jobi Colebrookea oppositifolia Coleus aromaticus Colocasia esculenta Combretum indicum Commelina benghalensis Commelina maculata Commelina paludosa Commiphora mukul Commiphora wightii Conocarpus lancifolius Consolida ajacis Convolvulus pluricaulis Cordyline fruticosa Corydalis cornuta Cosmos sulphureus Costus speciosus Cotinus coggygria Couroupita guianensis Crinum asiaticum Crocus sativus Crossandra infundibuliformis Crotalaria alata Crotalaria pallida Croton klotzschianus Croton scabiosus Croton tiglium Cryptolepis buchananii Cryptolepis dubia Cryptostegia grandiflora Cucumis sativus Cupressus torulosa Curcuma amada Curcuma longa Cyananthus lobatus Cyanthillium cinereum Cycas revoluta Cyclanthera pedata Cymbopogon nardus Cynodon dactylon Cyperus laevigatus Cyperus rotundus Dactyloctenium aegyptium Dactylorhiza hatagirea Dalbergia latifolia Datisca cannabina Datura metel Datura stramonium Daucus carota Delphinium ajacis Delphinium denudatum Delphinium elatum Dendrobium densiflorum Dendrobium ovatum Derris scandens Desmodium concinnum Desmodium gangeticum Desmodium heterocarpon Desmodium triflorum Dicliptera paniculata Didymocarpus pedicellatus Dillenia indica Dimorphocalyx glabellus Dimorphoteca ecklonis Dioscorea alata Dioscorea polygonoides Diospyros malabarica Dipteracanthus patulus Dipteracanthus prostratus Dolichos biflorus Dregea volubilis Drimia indica Drosera peltata Dysoxylum binectariferum Dysoxylum gotadhora Dysphania ambrosioides Echinocereus pentalophus Echinops niveus Echium plantagineum Edgeworthia gardneri Eichhornia crassipes Elaeagnus umbellata Elaeocarpus ganitrus Elephantopus scaber Eleutheranthera ruderalis Elsholtzia fruticosa Emblica officinalis Enterolobium cyclocarpum Ephedra foliata Ephedra gerardiana Epipactis helleborine Eranthemum pulchellum Eryngium foetidum Erysimum hieraciifolium Erythrina suberosa Erythrina variegata Euonymus echinatus Euonymus japonicus Eupatorium perfoliatum Euphorbia antiquorum Euphorbia cornigera Euphorbia cotinifolia Euphorbia granulata Euphorbia heterophylla Euphorbia hirta Euphorbia hypericifolia Euphorbia milii Euphorbia nivulia Euphorbia peplus Euphorbia tirucalli Fagonia cretica Fagopyrum acutatum Ferula foetida Ficus elastica Ficus religiosa Filicium decipiens Filipendula vestita Flacourtia indica Flemingia procumbens Flemingia semialata Foeniculum vulgare Free Access Journal Fumaria indica Fumaria parviflora Furcraea foetida Galega officinalis General Gentiana kurroo Geranium lucidum Geranium nepalense Geranium pratense Geranium wallichianum Ghee Globba schomburgkii Glochidion hohenackeri Gloriosa superba Glycyrrhiza glabra Gmelina arborea Gomphrena globosa Gomphrena serrata Goodyera repens Grewia asiatica Grewia optiva Grewia serrulata Grewia tenax Gymnema sylvestre Habenaria edgeworthii Handroanthus impetiginosus Hedychium spicatum Helianthus annuus Helicteres isora Helinus lanceolatus Heliotropium indicum Hemidesmus indicus Hemigraphis alternata Hemigraphis colorata Hemigraphis hirta Heracleum sphondylium Herpetospermum pedunculosum Hibiscus cannabinus Hibiscus esculentus Hibiscus hirtus Hibiscus lobatus Hibiscus radiatus Hibiscus vitifolius Holarrhena antidysenterica Holarrhena pubescens Holoptelea integrifolia Hosta plantaginea Hoya carnosa Hydrocotyle sibthorpioides Hydrolea zeylanica Hygrophila auriculata Hygrophila polysperma Hygrophila schulli Hylocereus undatus Hymenocallis speciosa Hypericum dyeri Hypericum elodeoides Hypericum oblongifolium Hyptis suaveolens Ilex dipyrena Impatiens balsamina Impatiens racemosa Indigofera aspalathoides Indigofera astragalina Ipomoea alba Ipomoea aquatica Ipomoea marginata Isodon rugosus Ixeris polycephala Jacaranda mimosifolia Jacquemontia pentantha Jasminum auriculatum Jasminum multiflorum Jatropha curcas Jatropha gossypifolia Juncus thomsonii Justicia adhatoda Justicia brandegeeana Justicia carnea Justicia gendarussa Justicia pubigera Kalanchoe blossfeldiana Kallstroemia pubescens Koelreuteria elegans Koenigia delicatula Kopsia fruticosa Kydia calycina Kyllinga brevifolia Lablab purpureus Lactuca dissecta Lantana camara Lathyrus sativus Leea aequata Lens culinaris Leonotis nepetifolia Leonurus cardiaca Lepidium sativum Lepisanthes rubiginosa Leucas aspera Leucas nutans Leucostemma latifolium Leycesteria formosa Ligularia amplexicaulis Ligularia fischeri Lilium polyphyllum Linum usitatissimum Liparis nervosa Liquidambar formosana Litsea monopetala Macaranga peltata Maesa argentea Magnolia champaca Mahonia napaulensis Malachra Capitata Mallotus nudiflorus Mallotus philippinensis Malva sylvestris Malvastrum coromandelianum Martynia annua Medicago lupulina Medicinal Plants of India Melilotus indicus Melochia corchorifolia Memecylon edule Memecylon umbellatum Mercurialis annua Meriandra strobilifera Merremia cissoides Mesua ferrea Micrococca mercuriali Micromeria biflora Mikania micrantha Millettia pinnata Mimosa pudica Mitragyna parvifolia Modiola caroliniana Momordica charantia Momordica cochinchinensis Morinda citrifolia Morinda pubescens Moringa oleifera Mucuna pruriens Muehlenbeckia platyclada Muehlenbeckia platyclados Muntingia calabura Murdannia nudiflora Murraya koenigii Muscari neglectum Myriactis nepalensis Myristica fragrans Myrtus communis Naravelia zeylanica Nardostachys grandiflora Nardostachys jatamansi Nasturtium officinale Nelumbo nucifera Neolamarckia cadamba Nepeta laevigata Nerium indicum Nerium oleander Nicotiana plumbaginifolia Nicotiana rustica Nicotiana tabacum Nigella sativa Nyctanthes arbor-tristis Nymphaea nouchali Nymphaea pubescens Nymphoides indica Ocimum basilicum Ocimum gratissimum Ocimum kilimandscharicum Ocimum sanctum Oldenlandia umbellata Ononis repens Ononis spinosa Operculina turpethum Oroxylum indicum Osteospermum ecklonis Others Oxyria digyna Pachygone ovata Pachyrhizus erosus Paederia foetida Pandanus tectorius Passiflora caerulea Passiflora vitifolia Pavetta indica Pentapetes phoenicea Pentas lanceolata Peperomia argyreia Peperomia heyneana Peperomia pellucida Peperomia sandersii Peperomia tetraphylla Perilla frutescens Persicaria amplexicaulis Persicaria barbata Persicaria capitata Persicaria glabra Persicaria nepalensis Phalaenopsis taenialis Phaulopsis dorsiflora Philodendron bipinnatifidum Phlomis bracteosa Phyllanthus acidus Phyllanthus amarus Phyllanthus fraternus Phyllanthus lawii Phyllanthus rotundifolius Physalis peruviana Picrorhiza kurroa Pilea microphylla Piper betle Piper longum Piper nigrum Pisonia aculeata Pistia stratiotes Pisum sativum Plantago orbignyana Plantago ovata Platanthera edgeworthii Platostoma elongatum Plectranthus barbatus Plectranthus scutellarioides Plumbago auriculata Plumbago capensis Plumbago zeylanica Plumeria rubra Podranea ricasoliana Polemonium caeruleum Polygala crotalarioides Polygala persicariifolia Polygonatum verticillatum Polygonum amplexicaule Polygonum barbatum Polygonum recumbens Pongamia pinnata Portulaca oleracea Portulaca umbraticola Portulacaria afra Potentilla fruticosa Premna corymbosa Primula denticulata Primula floribunda Primula vulgaris Prunus Amygdalus Prunus dulcis Pseuderanthemum carruthersii Pseudobombax ellipticum Pseudocaryopteris foetida Psidium guajava Psidium guineense Pterocarpus santalinus Pterospermum acerifolium Pterospermum lanceifolium Pterygota alata Pulicaria dysenterica Punica granatum Putranjiva roxburghii Pyrostegia venusta Quisqualis indica Ranunculus arvensis Ranunculus laetus Ranunculus sceleratus Raphanus sativus Rauvolfia serpentina Rauvolfia tetraphylla Reinwardtia indica Rhamphicarpa fistulosa Rhodiola trifida Rhodiola wallichiana Rhododendron arboreum Rhynchosia viscosa Ricinus communis Rorippa indica Roscoea purpurea Rosmarinus officinalis Ruellia patula Ruellia prostrata Ruellia tuberosa Rumex dentatus Rumex hastatus Rungia pectinata Saccharum officinarum Saccharum spontaneum Salix denticulata Salix tetrasperma Salvadora persica Salvia involucrata Salvia nubicola Salvia splendens Sambucus canadensis Sambucus mexicana Sambucus nigra Santalum album Sapindus saponaria Saussurea auriculata Saussurea candicans Saussurea obvallata Scadoxus multiflorus Scutellaria grossa Scutellaria repens Sedum oreades Semecarpus anacardium Senna auriculata Senna occidentalis Senna siamea Senna sophera Sesbania bispinosa Sesbania grandiflora Seseli diffusum Sesuvium portulacastrum Setaria verticillata Shorea robusta Sida cordata Sida cordifolia Sida retusa Sida spinosa Sideritis hirsuta Solanum chrysotrichum Solanum erianthum Solanum jasminoides Solanum melongena Solanum nigrum Solanum sisymbriifolium Solanum surattense Solanum torvum Solanum tuberosum Solanum villosum Soymida febrifuga Sphaeranthus amaranthoides Sphenoclea zeylanica Spiranthes australis Spiranthes sinensis Spondias pinnata Stellaria media Stephania japonica Sterculia alata Sterculia foetida Sterculia villosa Stereospermum tetragonum Striga asiatica Strophanthus boivinii Strychnos potatorum Suaeda maritima Suregada multiflora Swertia angustifolia Swertia cordata Swertia paniculata Swietenia macrophylla Swietenia mahagoni Syzygium aromaticum Syzygium cumini Syzygium jambos Syzygium samarangense Tabebuia aurea Tabebuia avellanedae Talinum portulacifolium Tamarindus indica Tecoma castanifolia Tephrosia purpurea Teramnus labialis Terminalia catappa Terminalia chebula Teucrium botrys Teucrium royleanum Thalictrum foliolosum Thespesia populnea Thunbergia erecta Thunbergia fragrans Thunbergia grandiflora Thymus linearis Tiliacora acuminata Tiliacora racemosa Tinospora cordifolia Tinospora crispa Tinospora sinensis Toona ciliata Trewia nudiflora Tribulus terrestris Trichodesma indicum Trichosanthes cucumerina Trichosanthes palmata Trichosanthes tricuspidata Trifolium repens Trigonella foenum-graecum Triumfetta rhomboidea Uraria picta Urena lobata Urena sinuata Urginea coromandeliana Vachellia horrida Valeriana jatamansi Vanda tessellata Veronica serpyllifolia Viburnum coriaceum Vicia bakeri Vicia faba Vicia sativa Vigna radiata Vigna unguiculata Vinca rosea Viola rupestris Vitex negundo Vitis vinifera Withania somnifera Wrightia tinctoria Zamia furfuracea Ziziphus jujuba Ziziphus mauritiana