Showing posts with label Datura stramonium. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Datura stramonium. Show all posts

Monday, May 4, 2015

Datura stramonium, thorn apple, Ummetta, Στραμώνιο

Datura stramonium L.
Family: Solanaceae

Synonyms: Datura bernhardii Lundstr., Datura bertolonii Parl. ex Guss., Datura cabanesii P.Fourn., Datura capensis Bernh., Datura ferocissima Cabanès & P.Fourn., Datura ferox Nees, Datura hybrida Ten., Datura inermis Juss. ex Jacq., Datura laevis L.f., Datura loricata Sieber ex Bernh., Datura lurida Salisb., Datura microcarpa Godr., Datura muricata Godr., Datura parviflora Salisb., Datura praecox Godr., Datura pseudostramonium Sieber ex Bernh., Datura stramonium var. canescens Roxb., Datura stramonium var. chalybaea W.D.J.Koch, Datura stramonium f. godronii (Danert) Geerinck & Walravens, Datura stramonium var. gordonii Danert, Datura stramonium f. inermis (Juss. ex Jacq.) Hupke, Datura stramonium var. inermis (Juss. ex Jacq.) Fernald, Datura stramonium var. stramonium, Datura stramonium var. tatula (L.) Decne., Datura stramonium f. tatula (L.) B.Boivin, Datura stramonium var. tatula (L.) Torr., Datura tatula L., Datura wallichii Dunal, Stramonium foetidum Scop., Stramonium laeve Moench, Stramonium spinosum Lam., Stramonium tatula Moench, Stramonium vulgare Moench, Stramonium vulgatum Gaertn.

Common name: Jimson weed, thorn apple, Jamestown-weed, Devil's apple
Arabic: سم الفار(سِم الفار)، نفير (نِفير) , داتوره، تاتوره
Bulgarian: Татул
Chinese: 醉心花
Finnish: Okahulluruoho
French: Stramoine, Herbe à la taupe, Stramoine commune
German: Stechapfel
Greek: Στραμώνιο
Italian: Stramonio comune
Kannada: ಉಮ್ಮತ್ತಿ
Latin: Folia Stramonii
Malayalam: Ummam, ഉമ്മം
Polish: Bieluń dziędzierzawa
Romanian: ciumafaie
Russian: durman obyknovennyj, дурман обыкновенный
Spanish: estramonio
Swedish: spikklubba
Tamil: ஊமத்தம் Umattam
Telugu: Ummetta ఉమ్మెత్త
Thai: ลำโพงม่วง
Vietnamese: Cà độc dược lùn

Datura stramonium differs in having smaller flowers and tooth-edged leaves, and Datura wrightii in having wider, 5-toothed (instead of 10-toothed) flowers. Datura inoxia differs from D. stramonium, D. metel & D.fastuosa in having about 7 to 10 secondary veins on either side of the midrib of the leaf which anastomose by arches at about 1 to 3 mm. from the margin. No anastomosis of the secondary veins are seen in the other 4 major species of Datura.

Description: Plant 60-120 cm or more tall, branched, pubescent; the branches often purplish. Leaves 8-17 x 4-13 cm, ovate or broadly so, sinuately dentate, minutely puberulose, cuneate. Petiole 2-5 cm long. Calyx 3.5-5.5 cm long, tubular, 5-dentate, puberulous, persistent. Lobes 6-9 mm long, strongly reflexed in fruit, apiculate. Corolla 7-10 cm long, white or purplish suffused; limb up to 8 cm broad. shallowy 5-lobed, with the lobes, ± triangular-acuminate. Anthers ± 5 mm long, with the lobes narrow oblong, usually white. Capsule erect, 3-4 cm long, ovoid, spiny and densely pubescent, splitting by 4 valves; spines up to 5 mm long. Seeds 3 mm long, reniform, reticulate-foveolate, black.  


Folk  practitioners  used  the  plant  for  worms. Folk practitioners use the leaves of the plant as a treatment not only for asthma, but also for convulsive cough, pertussis, and other respiratory
problems. The flowers are fragrant but poisonous. It has been smoked as a traditional treatment for asthma in Southern Appalachia.  Datura stramonium is now considered a dangerous poisonous plant and should not be taken internally. The PDR for Herbal Medicines does not recommend use
of the plant, due to its toxicity. [African American Slave Medicine : Herbal and Non-herbal Treatments]

Both herb and seed of this plant are used in asthma, especially in the spas medically recurring forms of this disease, in difficulty of respiration, and in chest and lung complaints generally; owing, however, to its possessing strong narcotic property, amounting, indeed, to that of a poison, it is unsafe for employment internally, but all the benefit produced by its employment in the infusion may be derived from it by inhaling the, smoke from the burnt herb; this is done by means of the ordinary tobacco pipe, and is a perfectly safe method of employment; in this way it is used in all chest affections, chronic coughs, excessive expectoration, and to promote expectoration when difficulty is experienced by the hardness of the sputa, in expelling it, and in difficulty of breathing, in all these symptoms very great relief is afforded by its exhibition. Inhalation being in a very numerous class of cases the only means by which the more distressing symptoms of many pulmonary complaints can be met with anything like effectiveness, we have offered, by the means suggested here, one of the most useful agents in procuring the results desired, relief being frequently obtained by means of this process, when by no other has it been possible to secure it. It has been similarly employed in dyspepsia, but, as would appear, with no permanently good result, its action being almost exclusively upon the lungs and respiratory apparatus. An ointment prepared from stramonium has received considerable attention for piles, fistula, abscesses, and suppurating old sores, in which it is employed with great benefit; success has also been said to have followed its employment for pains in the joints and in rheumatic affections, to which cases it is applied with friction For sores requiring a cleansing, and at the same time emollient, application, it is of extreme value. As an external application, stramonium appears to be less used at the present time than formerly. [Botanic Pharmacopoeia]

Used in Ayurveda, Unani and Sidha. High toxicity, whole  plant toxic, leaves and seeds are the usual sources of poisoning in humans and other animals; all animals, including pets  and poultry, may be affected; even the nectar of this plant  contains alkaloids that contaminate honey. Hallucinogenic,  narcotic,  anesthetic,  intoxicating,  used  for  sedating  and  relieving  muscular  spasm.  Flower  juice  used  in  headache.  Leaves for asthma, cough, antimicrobial, leaf for skin dis- eases, boils, wounds and sores; leaves heated and tied on the  breasts  by  women  for  drying  out  the  milk;  crushed  leaves  kept in bed to kill bed-bugs; dry leaves smoked for asthma  and sinus infections; chewed to relieve toothache and sore  gum; leaves juice applied on forehead in headache. Crushed  seeds in mustard oil applied for rheumatism; seeds are fried and the smoke inhaled through the mouth to relieve toothache. Fruits sedative; fruits juice applied to scalp for dandruff and falling hairs [CRC World Dictionary of Medicinal and Poisonous Plants]

Bolivians use the floral infusion for childbirth fever, delirium tremens, and hysteria.  Bulgarians  suggest  Asmatin,  Asmatol,  and  Datura  cigarettes  for  bronchial  asthma. Costa Ricans gargle leaf infusion for sore throat; crushed leaves applied on cancers and sores . Cubans inhale smoke for asthma . Cubans use crushed leaf poultice or decoction on hemorrhoids . Haitians ingest leaf diffusion for itch and pruritus . Haitians use the leaves or seeds for asthma, dementia, dermatosis, epilepsy, hemorrhoids, rheumatism, and sciatica . Indians apply warmed leaves to the breast to reduce lactation and to firm the breast.  Mexicans use seed tincture for headache, neuralgia, and rheumatism . Nepalese use flower juice as eardrops for earache . Nepalese use pounded leaves with marijuana and Peruvians and Venezuelans poultice leaves on tumors,  express juice for earache.  Bolivians use the floral infusion for childbirth fever, delirium tremens, and hysteria.  Bulgarians  suggest  Asmatin,  Asmatol,  and  Datura  cigarettes  for  bronchial  asthma.  Costa Ricans gargle leaf infusion for sore throat; crushed leaves applied on cancers and  sores . Cubans inhale smoke for asthma . Cubans use crushed leaf poultice or decoction on hemorrhoids . Haitians ingest leaf diffusion for itch and pruritus . Haitians use the leaves or seeds for asthma, dementia, dermatosis, epilepsy, hemorrhoids, rheumatism, and sciatica . Indians apply warmed leaves to the breast to reduce lactation and to firm the breast.  Mexicans use seed tincture for headache, neuralgia, and rheumatism . Nepalese use flower juice as eardrops for earache . Nepalese use pounded leaves with marijuana and Peruvians and Venezuelans poultice leaves on tumors , express juice for earache.  [ Duke's Handbook of Medicinal Plants of Latin America ]

Spasmolytic, antiasthmatic, anticholinergic, cerebral depressant, nerve-sedative. Controls spasms of bronchioles in asthma. Anticholinergic. Effects of overdose are similar to those of atropine. Temporary relief from Parkinsonian tremor recorded. (Contraindicated with depressant drugs.) Applied locally, stramonium palliates the pain of muscular rheumatism, neuralgia, also pain due to haemorrhoids, fistula, abscesses and similar inflammations. Prevents motion sickness. [Indian Medicinal Plants An Illustrated Dictionary]

In Burma, the seeds are used to induce narcosis. In China, the flowers are used to assuage pains, treat asthma, bechic, skin troubles, swollen feet, prolapse of the rectum and nervous disorders. The leaves are smoked to treat asthma and to assuage pains. In the Philippines, the plant is used for criminal purposes. [Medicinal Plants: Drugs For The Future? ]

This species has been widely used since ancient times. Avicenna said that this plant makes you drunk, is too dangerous for the brain, and is the enemy of the heart. Beruni wrote that half a gram of the seeds can make you drunk and 4.2 g can kill you. A decoction of the seeds is used as a gargle for people with tooth- and headaches, as a painkiller and sedative, and to treat fevers, neuralgia, rheumatism, and radiculitis. Oil from the seeds is used to treat hemorrhoids and the leaves are laid over the eyes to treat eye aches. [The Medicinal Plants of Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan]

This well-known drug plant is used to some extent in Jamaica for asthma and sinus infections. It palliates the distressing paroxysms of pure spasmodic asthma when smoked.  The leaves are rubbed up and applied externally to swellings, burns and ulcers. Similar uses are made of the plant in South Africa. The leaves are also used for headaches, haemorrhoids and running sores. Browne reports that in his day the plant was seldom used internally as its use was accompanied by 'dreadful perturbations of the mind', though it was tben used for scalds and sores. The leaves have a total alkaloid content of 0.2 to 0.6 per cent, the content increasing with the age and size of the leaves. The principle alkaloid is hyoscyamine with smaller quantities of atropine and hyoscine. [ Medicinal Plants of Jamaica]

 Leaf: Applied with coconut oil on bruises; leaf used for a pain-killer (anodyne) in Surinam. Fruit: Crushed green fruit used to treat pustules of anthracoid erysipelas in French Guiana. Flower: Juice used to treat earache in Surinam. [Medicinal Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana) ]

253 Published articles of Datura stramonium
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